Victor Jara's Killers: The last secret 

Víctor Jara (1932-1973)
He was one of the most relevant theater directors of his time. As part of the New Chilean Song, it became a reference for national music. But his communist militancy and his support for the government of Salvador Allende condemned him: on September 12, 1973, he was arrested at the Technical University of the State and taken to Chile Stadium, where he was assassinated days later.
Mónica González
"On September 16 [1973], at 7:00, Víctor Jara's body, along with five more corpses, was found next to the Metropolitan Cemetery, near the train line. Of the six bodies, settlers recognized two: Victor and Liter Quiroga, who had also been seen by witnesses as a prisoner at Estadio Chile. The names of these witnesses will be given to the court in due time. Some of these witnesses knew personally Victor and Liter Quiroga, so one of them knew that Litre had a scar on his chest, on the left side. This he discovered by opening his clothes. And with respect to Victor, they felt the callosities of their hands, own of interpreters of guitar and that at that moment they were full of bruises and swollen. Thus it was read in the first judicial complaint that Joan Turner presented asking that it be clarified the death of who was its husband: Víctor Jara Martínez, born 28 of September of 1932, son of Manuel and Amanda.
The trial to identify the material and intellectual authors of his death began on September 12, 1978, on the grounds of a denunciation of his wife, a British national and a dance teacher, with whom he married on January 27, 1965. To be assassinated was 41 years old and two daughters: Manuela, 13 years old and Amanda, 9.
It must have been 40 years before finally the lock of the secret that involved the murder of Víctor Jara, Litre Quiroga and dozens of other Chilean and foreign citizens who found the death in Estadio Chile, whose identity and number is still unknown, began slowly to To unwind
The Chile Stadium and the planning of the Strike
Until the last hours of the night of September 10, 1973, the central house of the Technical University of the State (UTE, today University of Santiago) was the epicenter of a great boil. Everything was ready so that, at 11:00 the next morning, President Salvador Allende will inaugurate the exhibition "For Life Forever", with an expected performance by the singer-songwriter Víctor Jara. Only a few knew what Allende would announce from the UTE: a plebiscite with which he tried to avoid the coup. Two days earlier the President had told General Carlos Prats, commander in chief of the Army until August 23, 1973: "It is the only democratic solution to avoid the coup or civil war." Allende knew that this popular verdict would not win.
What the professors and students of the UTE did not imagine, and not Allende, was precisely that announcement of plebiscite, which was quickly informed to those who wanted to overthrow it, had been the trigger accelerator of the coup. And less than at that same time, another boiling but for very different purposes, it surrounded several floors of the Ministry of Defense, located a few meters from the presidential palace. Inside, a group of soldiers under the command of Generals Herman Brady and Sergio Arellano Stark, finalized the details for the attack on La Moneda and the occupation of Santiago that would unleash only hours later.
The command of the military operations in Santiago was configured that same morning. Under the leadership of General Brady, at the head of the Military Garrison of Santiago, were aligned: General Sergio Arellano, in charge of the Santiago-Center Group; General César Benavides, in the Eastern Group, and Colonel Felipe Geiger, in the Northern-Group. The Reserve Group was given to General Javier Palacios, who would have a leading role on September 11.
Around a table in one of the offices of the ministry, a group of officers of the War Academy of the Army and Intelligence attached to the National Defense Staff, strategic nucleus of the coup d'état in march (headed by Admiral Patricio Carvajal ), Reviewed for the umpteenth time the details of the security plans "Copper" and "Ariete", with the first orders of what to do with the Popular Unity parties, their leaders and the prison camps that would qualify.
"I must indicate that I had to alphabetically order a list of people who had to be present in the regiments of the country and which was read by a military band. This list was passed to me by Admiral Carvajal, "said Álvaro Puga, who was one of the few civilians who participated in those preparations on the same day 10 (1).
Puga would also be in the Defense Ministry with Major Pedro Espinoza, who dressed in civilian and was in charge of the main Intelligence group of the National Defense General Staff, a unit that had supported the secret planning of the coup plotters in those months. 1973.
On the fourth floor of the building, another group, including Pedro Ewin Hodar (secretary of the National Defense Staff) and the student of the War Academy, Colonel Roberto Guillard (2), who also included civilians, The drafts of the first military bands that would be transmitted by a radio chain headed by Radio Agricultura (owned by the National Agricultural Society, the main agricultural guild).
That there were officers of the War Academy, the so-called elite of the Army, was not surprising. These officers were the first to join the preparation of the coup in clandestine meetings with officers of the Air Force and Navy, who had the leadership. As early as September 7 they were informed of the imminence of the coup, so the students of the three courses of the academy were assigned to different units to ensure that the final day was successful.
The importance of the War Academy in the Coup was clearly reflected when Arellano entrusted to him the organization of the headquarters of the Santiago-Center Group, Colonel Enrique Morel Donoso (3), director of the War Academy since August, when the owner , Herman Brady, assumed the command of the Garrison of Santiago. This was also the moment when the academy became the armed wing of the coup plotters in the Army, with information transmitted by Colonel Sergio Arredondo González (4), professor of the academy and one of the first conspirators. Arredondo would also have a preponderant roll in the actions of the Coup like head of the General Staff of the Group Santiago-Center.
It was thus that day 10, Arellano Stark, Morel and Arredondo took the last and secretive contacts with the leaders of the forces that would act on La Moneda and Santiago: School of Infantry, School of NCOs, the regiments Tacna, Yungay (of San Felipe ), Guardia Vieja (from the Andes), Coraceros (from Viña del Mar), Maipo (from Valparaiso) and School of Engineers (from Green Tiles).
On that same day, in the offices of the Army Administrative Command (CAE), General Arturo Viveros (5), another of the first participants in the preparation of the coup, quoted commander Mario Manríquez Bravo, to order him to enable Estadio Chile Located in Pasaje Boxeador Arturo Godoy Nº 2750, between the street Unión Latinoamericana in the east and Bascuñan Guerrero in the west) as a prison camp. Before taking charge of the Estadio Chile, Manríquez had to perform a delicate mission on September 11: to take charge of the burial of Salvador Allende and his autopsy, which would remain secret for 28 long years.
Major Hernán Chacón Soto, another of the officers of the War Academy, was also entrusted with the organization of the prison camps, under the orders of General Viveros. But the order had received it before: September 8.
By that time, the coup leaders had already decided that the Tacna Regiment would be the first and main center of detention, because up to that time it would take to those who were part of the payrolls prepared by the Intelligence group of the National Defense Staff, Headed by Major Pedro Espinoza. The commander of Tacna, Colonel Luis Joaquin Ramirez Pineda, was already preparing.
The same was done in the School of Engineers of Green Tiles, Major Manuel Contreras Sepulveda. One of the conscripts of his school recounted the following in the trial that seeks to establish who are the material and intellectual responsible for the murder of Victor Jara:
"On September 10, 1973, around 7:00 PM, a helicopter arrived at the Escuela de Ingenieros de Tejas Verdes, where a naval officer came, who went to talk with the school principal, Colonel Manuel Contreras, and This gives the order to form in the courtyard. In the formation, we are ordered to prepare our backpack and war weapon, which consisted of a GIS gun, with a hundred shots each. Around 8:00 PM, we went to sleep and at about 2:00 AM on day 11 we were awakened by the service cape and we were ordered to train in the courtyard. The floor staff was quartered. Colonel Contreras points out that we were going to a fight and did not want casualties on our part. Next to my section, we got into institutional trucks and headed to Santiago. Those who went to Santiago were: the Second Company, in charge of Captain Germán Montero Valenzuela, composed of the first, second and third sections, in charge of lieutenants Pedro Barrientos Núñez, Rodrigo Rodríguez Fuschloger and [Jorge] Smith, respectively. In addition to the Third Company, in charge of Captain Víctor Lizárraga Arias, and the first, second and third sections of that company, in charge of Lieutenant Orlando Cartes Cuadra (6). In charge of all this contingent was Major Alejandro Rodríguez Fainé "(7).
The conscript R.A., relates: "Once we arrived in Santiago, we went to the Tacna Regiment, but this was occupied by the Maipo Regiment, which is why we were taken to a basketball court in Arsenals de Guerra. The first thing they gave us was breakfast and around 07:00 we were formed and they passed us a salmon collar and a white bracelet with green turtles and an officer, of whom I do not know name and grade, indicates that we were going to overthrow To the Communist President Allende and the one who does not want to go to take a step forward. We looked with our companions: nobody wanted to leave. Subsequently, the company that was complete, we went to the side of the Ministry of Defense [newspaper Clarín], took position of this building and began to have crossfire with snipers from other roofs.
The account of the conscript R.A. Was complemented by that of the conscript CAP: "After breakfast, Lieutenant Colonel Julio Canessa, commander of Arsenals de Guerra, tells us that there would be an important event in the country and Lieutenant Pedro Barrientos Núñez gave us more details and indicated that the That he did not want to go, to take a step forward: obviously nobody came out. Later, we went to La Moneda, on Calle San Diego, raiding all the buildings around the Ministry of Defense "(8).
Enrique Kirberg, rector of the Technical University, slept little and bad that night. At 6:30, the ringing of the phone made him jump out of bed. "A group of armed civilians attacked the facilities of the university radio, rendering the antenna unusable," was the brief announcement he received. After making sure there were no injuries, Kirberg went straight to college.
The attack was carried out by the contingent of the Navy stationed at the Naval Station of Quinta Normal, from where Admiral Patricio Carvajal, chief of the General Staff of National Defense, stepped in step by step the development of the coup plans. On September 10, the Navy ordered a group of Marines and intelligence personnel to move to Santiago. Among them were lieutenants Miguel Álvarez and Jorge Aníbal Osses Novoa, of the Intelligence Service of the Navy. In Santiago, was already the officer Pedro Castro Bustos, who depended directly on the captain of frigate Víctor Vergara "(9).
In La Serena, another group of Artillery Regiment No. 2, "Arica", was preparing to march to Santiago. At the helm of the Serena Group, Major Marcelo Moren Brito (10), the second commander of the regiment headed by Colonel Ariosto Lapostol, was chosen, who did not travel. Among the chosen were Captain Fernando Polanco, who was the intelligence chief of the regiment and commanded an infantry company of about 120 men.
Shortly after rector Kirberg joined the UTE, the Ecuador street sector became an anthill. While the first troops were unfolding in the surroundings, students and teachers walked patios and dependencies trying to obtain more information of what was happening. From battery-operated radios that surfaced everywhere, one could hear the sound of the anthem of Popular Unity "Venceremos", which Radio Magallanes spread over and over again accompanied by slogans to defend the government.
Around 10 o'clock in the morning, Victor Jara said goodbye to his wife, Joan Turner, and his daughters Manuela and Amanda, and left his house in Piacenza Street No. 1144. Knowing that a coup was under way, Decided to be in his place of work: the UTE. Joan will forever remember the image of Victor in his black pants and his black alpaca sweater, taking the keys of his renoleta and then fleeing in the direction of the university. He carried one of his most precious objects: his guitar.
Shortly thereafter, Víctor Jara joined the Vice-Rector of Communications of the UTE, located in front of the central house, where he worked as a folkloric researcher and theater director. She went directly to the office of Cecilia Coll, head of the Department of Artistic Extension, her friend and companion of many days of culture taken to the populations and factories. And also voluntary work, which was unloading flour and other staple foods that were scarce.
"'What do I do?' Was the first thing he told me. I saw him arrive wielding his guitar and his face worried. But he spoke to me with that conviction that impressed me, to be deeply convinced of what he did in music, theater, and his militant attitude. I heard him speak in a moment that morning with his wife, Joan, which reaffirmed to me that Victor was clear about his responsibility that day, "recalls Cecilia in an interview with the author.
That call was confirmed by Victor Jara's wife, Joan Turner, who said, "Victor called me at around 11:30 to tell me he had arrived well, despite the movement of troops. Let her be calm and take care of the girls. "
Cecilia Coll does not forget that it was she who told Victor to go to the School of Arts and Trades, the old and solid building that could better resist a military attack, since at that time many shots were heard. By then, there were already hundreds of teachers and students who remained in the UTE.
At that same hour had already been released the officers who had carried out on June 29, 1973 the rebellion of the Armored Regiment No. 2, known as the "Tanquetazo." The riot, a draft of the coup that was to be carried out three months later, left several dead and wounded, and was organized and carried out by a group of soldiers in concomitance with the extreme right-wing movement Patria y Libertad. Their leaders were: Colonel Roberto Souper Onfray (11), who was the commander of Armored Nº 2; Captain Sergio Rocha Aros (12), commander of the Tank Company of the regiment; Captain Carlos Lemus and Lieutenants Raúl Jofré González, Antonio Bustamante Aguilar, Mario Garay Martínez (13), Edwin Dimter Bianchi, René López Rivera (14), Carlos Souper Quinteros and Victor Urzúa Patri. The majority were in military prison in different units of Santiago, accused of insurrection and sedition.
The maelstrom of the events of 11 stifled the liberation of the seditious military. But the secret remained long years. There were reasons for this. The main thing: to hide the names of those who ordered the missions that were entrusted to the officers who had recently left the military prison, chewing the failure of their operation and of renowned vocation for violence and the extreme right. But there were other events that surrounded that liberation and that connected those men with Estadio Chile and the destiny of Victor Jara.
One of those officers was Lieutenant and now Brigadier Raúl Aníbal Jofré González, who was released at the Army's Telecommunications School, along with rebel Lt. Edwin Dimter Bianchi. Jofré related:
"On September 11, around 6:00 PM, they went to look for me and transferred me to the Garrison Command, located on the sixth floor of the then Ministry of Defense. The same day, at different times, the rest of the officers arrived, with the exception of Colonel Souper, whom I did not see. The next day I was sent with Lieutenant Edwin Dimter to Estadio Chile ... "(15).
Another rebel and liberated officer did see Colonel Souper that morning in the central command of the coup. The now colonel (R) Antonio Roberto Bustamante Aguilar (16), reports:
"On September 11, 1973, around 11:00, I am informed that I am released and I am transferred to Zenteno No. 45 where the Ministry of Defense worked. I went directly to the sixth floor, where I was available as the other officers who had participated in the so-called 'Tanquetazo': Colonel Roberto Souper, Captain Sergio Rocha, Lieutenants Raul Jofre, Edwin Dimter, Mario Garay and René López. In the afternoon we were assigned to different units. I do not know what unit Colonel Souper was assigned to. Captain Rocha was sent to the Jurisdictional Area Command of the Interior Security Zone (CAJSI) of Puente Alto, where he had been a prisoner (the then Railroad Regiment No. 2); Jofré and Lopez were sent to Estadio Chile; About Dimter, I have doubts, and about Garay, it seems to me that he was sent to the Second Division of the Army. I was assigned to the Internal Security Jurisdictional Areas Command, or CAJSI of Santiago, which operated on the sixth floor, south wing of the Ministry of Defense (Fifth Department, Civil Affairs). All the security activities of Army, Navy and Air Force, as well as Carabineros and Investigations, were subordinated to the CAJSI. The Fifth Department of Civil Affairs, to which I was assigned, was in charge of the Army captain, Ramon Castro Ivanovic, a third-year student of the War Academy "(17).
But there was another fact that everyone was silent for many years and that Lieutenant Edwin Dimter, another of the insurgents and released, decided to reveal to the court 31 years later, when the figure of Victor Jara returned with unusual force:
"At noon on September 13, 1973, all the officers who had participated in the uprising of June 29, were received by General Augusto Pinochet, who gave us a few words and then told us that we would receive instructions. We were present at that meeting: Colonel Roberto Souper, Captain Sergio Rocha; And Lieutenants Raúl Jofré, Antonio Bustamante, René López, Mario Garay and the speaker. Then I was assigned to Estadio Chile, an enclosure to which I was transferred in a jeep on the same day "(18).
The departure of Dimter and Jofré to Estadio Chile was confirmed by the then lieutenant and now lieutenant colonel (R) Mario Garay Martinez, another of the insurrectionaries of Armored Nº 2: "The lieutenants Jofré and Dimter were sent to Estadio Chile ... In my case , I was kept in the Second Division to perform administrative tasks and at the disposal of the senior officers of the General Staff "(19).
At 10:20, after having broadcast for the second time the last speech of Salvador Allende, Radio Magallanes was silent forever. At 11:52 the first bomb dropped on La Moneda. Víctor Jara showed the impact and called his wife. Joan will tell later that in that conversation he told her to be calm, to try to return to the house, but later ...
Shortly before 2:00 p.m., the occupation troops, led by General Javier Palacios, with Tacna contingent and the Non-commissioned and Infantry Schools, entered La Moneda. In charge of the five batteries of the Tacna Regiment, that soon unclasped the Ministry of Education, was the greater Enrique Cruz Laugier (20).
Palacios later said that they received bullets from the interior of La Moneda in flames and that the rapid performance of his assistant, Lieutenant Ivan Herrera Lopez (21), prevented him from being hit by other projectiles. And added in an interview with Maria Eugenia Oyarzún: "Lieutenant Armando Fernandez Larios sold me with a handkerchief that I passed him to cover the wound. Why was he there? I think the Army Intelligence Service (SIM) sent people on their own to identify the prisoners. " Palacios was right. Armando Fernández Larios belonged at that moment to the intelligence team of the National Defense General Staff, headed by Major Pedro Espinoza, a group that had prepared the list of leaders of UP officials who had to take prisoners as a first priority. A task that the Intelligence Staff of the General Staff of the Coup would continue to develop later at Estadio Chile.
Inside the UTE people were convulsed. Rector Kirberg still could not convince himself that the government palace was on fire. Suddenly, shouts were heard: "To the Paraninfo! To the Paraninfo! General Expanded! ". In an interview with the author, Kirberg reports:
"The assembly was held. We were all together, teachers, students, workers. The president of the UTE Students' Federation, Osiel Núñez, called to stop the coup. The morning had passed in a vertiginous manner. A delegation of Christian Democrat professors and students came to tell me that it was available to me. When we were still under the impact of the bombing, came a patrol of Marines. They claimed a half-flagged flag someone had set. 'Or they go up or down!' They ordered. We agreed to stay in college. There were about a thousand people. "
The student Iris Aceitón does not forget those moments: "The scream of the UTE pierced the walls of the auditorium to rise in the misty sky. A great shiver ran through my body. The faces of my companions were filled with tears. We embraced ... The men did not hide their awe. There were very few who left "(22).
Everyone organized for what was coming and that was nothing else to stay there, in the house that gave them identity. Victor Jara was one more.
"There in the yard, next to a large column of concrete, leaning on his inseparable guitar, I see Victor Jara. He's with Patricio Pumarino. They invite me to come closer. Victor talks to me and I hug him gratefully, "recalls Iris.
Shortly afterwards, a major of the Carabineros under the command of a patrol came to the UTE and told the rector that they were cordoned off: "No one can go out, not even go from one building to another, because they are going to receive fire. We are in State of Siege and the curfew came into effect, "he said quietly.
Víctor Jara, faithful to his character, had decided to stay. As at 16:30 he again communicated with his wife: "After some difficulties I managed to talk to him. He told me that he could not get to the house because of the touch of
But there was another fact that everyone was silent for many years and that Lieutenant Edwin Dimter, another of the insurgents and released, decided to reveal to the court 31 years later, when the figure of Victor Jara returned with unusual force:
"At noon on September 13, 1973, all the officers who had participated in the uprising of June 29, were received by General Augusto Pinochet, who gave us a few words and then told us that we would receive instructions. We were present at that meeting: Colonel Roberto Souper, Captain Sergio Rocha; And Lieutenants Raúl Jofré, Antonio Bustamante, René López, Mario Garay and the speaker. Then I was assigned to Estadio Chile, an enclosure to which I was transferred in a jeep on the same day "(18).
The departure of Dimter and Jofré to Estadio Chile was confirmed by the then lieutenant and now lieutenant colonel (R) Mario Garay Martinez, another of the insurrectionaries of Armored Nº 2: "The lieutenants Jofré and Dimter were sent to Estadio Chile ... In my case , I was kept in the Second Division to perform administrative tasks and at the disposal of the senior officers of the General Staff "(19).
At 10:20, after having broadcast for the second time the last speech of Salvador Allende, Radio Magallanes was silent forever. At 11:52 the first bomb dropped on La Moneda. Víctor Jara showed the impact and called his wife. Joan will tell later that in that conversation he told her to be calm, to try to return to the house, but later ...
Shortly before 2:00 p.m., the occupation troops, led by General Javier Palacios, with Tacna contingent and the Non-commissioned and Infantry Schools, entered La Moneda. In charge of the five batteries of the Tacna Regiment, that soon unclasped the Ministry of Education, was the greater Enrique Cruz Laugier (20).
Palacios later said that they received bullets from the interior of La Moneda in flames and that the rapid performance of his assistant, Lieutenant Ivan Herrera Lopez (21), prevented him from being hit by other projectiles. And added in an interview with Maria Eugenia Oyarzún: "Lieutenant Armando Fernandez Larios sold me with a handkerchief that I passed him to cover the wound. Why was he there? I think the Army Intelligence Service (SIM) sent people on their own to identify the prisoners. " Palacios was right. Armando Fernández Larios belonged at that moment to the intelligence team of the National Defense General Staff, headed by Major Pedro Espinoza, a group that had prepared the list of leaders of UP officials who had to take prisoners as a first priority. A task that the Intelligence Staff of the General Staff of the Coup would continue to develop later at Estadio Chile.
Inside the UTE people were convulsed. Rector Kirberg still could not convince himself that the government palace was on fire. Suddenly, shouts were heard: "To the Paraninfo! To the Paraninfo! General Expanded! ". In an interview with the author, Kirberg reports:
"The assembly was held. We were all together, teachers, students, workers. The president of the UTE Students' Federation, Osiel Núñez, called to stop the coup. The morning had passed in a vertiginous manner. A delegation of Christian Democrat professors and students came to tell me that it was available to me. When we were still under the impact of the bombing, came a patrol of Marines. They claimed a half-flagged flag someone had set. 'Or they go up or down!' They ordered. We agreed to stay in college. There were about a thousand people. "
The student Iris Aceitón does not forget those moments: "The scream of the UTE pierced the walls of the auditorium to rise in the misty sky. A great shiver ran through my body. The faces of my companions were filled with tears. We embraced ... The men did not hide their awe. There were very few who left "(22).
Everyone organized for what was coming and that was nothing else to stay there, in the house that gave them identity. Victor Jara was one more.
"There in the yard, next to a large column of concrete, leaning on his inseparable guitar, I see Victor Jara. He's with Patricio Pumarino. They invite me to come closer. Victor talks to me and I hug him gratefully, "recalls Iris.
Shortly afterwards, a major of the Carabineros under the command of a patrol came to the UTE and told the rector that they were cordoned off: "No one can go out, not even go from one building to another, because they are going to receive fire. We are in State of Siege and the curfew came into effect, "he said quietly.
Víctor Jara, faithful to his character, had decided to stay. As at 16:30 he again communicated with his wife: "After some difficulties I managed to talk to him. He told me that he could not get to the house because of the touch of
Víctor Jara, faithful to his character, had decided to stay. As at 16:30 he again communicated with his wife: "After some difficulties I managed to talk to him. He told me that he could not reach the house by curfew, that he would have to stay in the UTE that night, that he expected to see me in the house the next morning. That he loved me a lot ... That was the last time we talked, "says Joan Jara.
"We organized in two groups, one of them in the School of Arts and Crafts and another in the central house, distributed in different dependencies. Of those who were in the central house, some were in the sector of industrial engineers and others in the Paraninfo. The central house has underground, so we felt safe. Víctor Jara remained in the School of Arts and Crafts, where was the largest group of people. The night passed in one of its rooms, "said student leader Mario Aguirre Sánchez (23).
In fact, Victor Jara remained in the Laboratory of Physics of the School of Arts and Trades of the UTE. The student Juan Manuel Ferrari Ramirez was also there and did not forget:
"That night my expression was recorded because it looked very serene, worried and sad. He was embracing his guitar which made him very particular, unlike other people who were scared or panicked "(24).
After the rector Kirberg reached an agreement with a contingent of Carabineros so that the next morning the university was evacuated in complete calm, began the longest night that has been lived in the Technical University. Neither Víctor Jara nor Kirberg nor any of the students and professors who had decided to stay in the UTE could imagine that at that same time and at all motives the coup military prepared the Chile Stadium to receive their first prisoners. And they would be their next inhabitants.
Officer David González Toro, of the Army's Administrative Command, received an order that linked him for life to Estadio Chile:
"On the 11th, my general Viveros ordered me to take charge of the intendancy of a prison center that was to be created. Hours later I was informed that it was necessary to attend with Major Mario Manríquez, Major Sergio Acuña and Sergeants Sergio Etcheverry, Caupolicán Campos and Corporal Héctor Bernal, to Estadio Chile. When we arrived in the afternoon, there was no person ... When the detainees arrive, I have clear that there were personnel of the School of Engineers of Green Tiles, of the CAE and of the Regiment of Calama. I do not know if there was any other unit personnel ... I remember seeing Major Manriquez in a small office located along a wide corridor, next to some restrooms "(25).
Major Hernán Chacón Soto received other orders regarding Estadio Chile:
"At about 4:00 pm on September 11, I was ordered through the head of the Housing Department of the Army's Administrative Command, Lieutenant Colonel Mario Perez Paredes, who was to take charge of a section of the Texas School of Engineers Green. In the company of Lieutenant Colonel Perez, I had to move with this section in charge to the Estadio Chile, constituting myself in the place at about 19:00, where I was informed that I was in charge of the outer security of the gym ... In this work And with this section I remained until September 15, 1973, according to my memory, in which all the detainees of the Chile Stadium were transferred to the National Stadium.
One of the conscripts of Tejas Verdes, M.C., related what in those hours happened in the Estadio Chile:
"Around 19:00 on the 11th, we are ordered to go to the Estadio Chile, under Lieutenant Rodríguez Fuschloger and Lieutenant Jorge Smith Gumucio [and gives the names of all the sergeants, captains and conscripts who went with he]. When I arrived I observed several buses with detainees who were coming down with their hands up and were pointed by soldiers. I was ordered to bet on the entrance of the stadium, ordering the line of detainees that entered. This lasted for several hours until the stadium was almost full. Suddenly, next to the line of detainees, I saw a man of advanced age and I allowed him to rest on the ground. I was surprised by Lieutenant Smith, who rebuked me and wanted to send me detained for disobedience. Interrogated Lieutenant Rodriguez Fuschloger in my favor. Later, I went to rest for a few hours in a room on the second floor, and then, on my return, Corporal R. ordered me to remain as a sentinel in the gallery that was in front of the main entrance, in the hallway that divided the Low and high gallery "(26).
Conscript RA, of the School of Engineers of Texas Green, also claims to have been ordered to attend Estadio Chile at 7:00 pm on the 11th. And remember that goes all the section, which was directed by Lieutenant Rodrigo Rodriguez Fuschloger (27). When he arrives at the stadium, he says that Sergeants Victor Heredia Castro, Exequiel Oliva Muñoz and Corporal Nelson Barraza Morales, Homero Reinoso Valdés, Carlos Sepúlveda Moreno, José Galdames Arteaga, Jaime Sepúlveda López and 38 conscripts (all names) . Sergeants Sergio Montiel Díaz and Manuel Rolando Mella San Martín also went, who were not from his section, but who were in the Estadio Chile:
"Once we arrived at the stadium, there were a few police buses with detainees, waiting for us to take a position on the premises. To guard the place we divided into six-hour shifts. The cape ordered us where we had to be as sentinels. I remember that I was stationed at the main entrance, on the outer side. From my position I could observe the entrance of the detainees. It was a lot. Their personal belongings left them in a handkerchief or anything else on one side of the entrance. All night of the 11 and the dawn of the 12 of September they arrived detained. On day 12, around 06:00, I was relieved and I went to sleep, to assume later my shift in the same place ".
Not far away, within the UTE, lived hours of terror: "In the end, we were about 600 teachers, students and auxiliaries who stayed at the university, which was shot persistently with a long-range weapon during all night. Vehicles traveled around the area shooting to frighten us, "says an engineering student in an interview with the author.
Enrique Kirberg: "At midnight, they called the School of Arts and Crafts. I was informed that there was a wounded person: a cameraman, whom they called El Salvaje, had received a bullet in the spine that compromised the kidneys. It was very serious. I asked for hospital assistance, I insisted on the military, we waited all night ... Our man died ... And I must say there were no weapons inside the university and there was no resistance. A myth has been created: it is believed that we resist ... It gives me a little pity to disappoint them. "
The President of the UTE Federation of Students, Osiel Núñez, also remembered very well those moments in which the cameraman and photographer of the journal Presencia de la Universidad, Hugo Araya Araya, El Salvaje was injured: "The rector made several calls requesting An ambulance to transfer the wounded. It was useless. As at one o'clock we were informed that Hugo Araya had died bled, "he told the Rettig Commission (28).
The "Arica" ​​regiment group that came from La Serena to reinforce the military operations of the coup consisted of two Infantry companies and an Artillery battery composed of four pieces commanded by Major Marcelo Moren Brito. His first mission was to "evict and occupy all units of the UTE".
"The information intelligence that the Military Garrison of Santiago handled was that within that house of studies there were between 300 to 500 people, many of them armed. Personnel of the Navy, a member of the Naval Station of Quinta Normal, together with police from the police station of Calle Ecuador, had not been able to evict them, informing them that they had been shot from the inside, "recalls Pedro Rodríguez Bustos , Who participated in the occupation of the UTE (29).
Officer Fernando Polanco is also part of the contingent that was ready to attack the UTE, commanded by Major Moren Brito: "We spent the day in the Buin Regiment. At dawn on the 12th, through an order I presume was given by the commander of the Buin Regiment, Colonel Felipe Geyger, our entire group went to raid and occupy the grounds of the Technical University of the State ... Major Moren was the one Understood the superiority and received the orders directly from the commander of the Santiago-Center Group. Our mission was only to evacuate the area and coordinate the transfer to Estadio Chile. Approximately in October of that year the DINA was created, which went directly and only within our group, Major Moren Brito "(30).
What Polanco does not say, better known in the Army as "El Polaco", is that in those same days he was also hunting for leaders of the Popular Unity. Thus he arrived at the home of Felix Huerta, one of the members of the most secret advisory committee of Salvador Allende. Huerta was invalid and Polanco extorted him to give the identity of his companions in exchange for the life of his brother, Enrique Huerta (who, however, had already murdered). Polanco finally did not kill Félix Huerta, but continued his career in intelligence services at the BIE, the most secret group of the Army Intelligence Directorate. Other deaths, including that of Colonel Huber, a member of the DINA, would be awarded over the years. Huber was killed when the illegal sale of arms to Croatia was discovered once democracy was restored.
As at 6:00 on September 12, Enrique Kirberg changed his shirt and shaved. He wanted to be prepared to receive the military delegation that would help the eviction:
"Suddenly I felt a terrible rumble. They fired a cannon at the university building. The shell opened an immense gap and exploded two offices beyond where I was. I chewed on pieces of concrete. I peered out and saw entrenched troops shooting toward the university. The front windows shattered, making a frightful noise. We had to lie on the ground to avoid the shots. As the attack did not cease, I took my white shirt, went to the window and took it out. I heard shouts: 'Come out with your arms up!' A woman began to cry ... I heard myself say, 'It's no time to cry!' "
"At approximately 7:00 am, I was in the administration's offices, with about a hundred people and we saw when they installed a cannon in front of the main building and threw three shells. They immediately unloaded a machine-gun attack for more than 30 minutes. By loudspeakers an officer asked us to surrender. Everyone went out with their hands up and in an Indian line between two rows of armed soldiers, "said Professor Carlos Orellana (31).
Enrique Kirberg: "The people began to leave with arms raised, but still they did not stop shooting. My impression was that the soldiers were more frightened than we were. In a violent way they forced people to lie on the floor. I also did it, but the commander made me stop at the point of the butt and he shouted at me: 'So you're the rector, just like that! Now you are going to see what university autonomy is! ' He violently grabbed me by the arm, threw me against a wall, cocked his gun, and pointed at me: 'You have 15 seconds to tell me where the weapons are, otherwise I'll shoot!' I was very clear that I was in front of my university, teachers and students listened to me. I do not know where I gained strength, but very serene I answered: 'The weapons of the University are knowledge, art and culture'. The 15 seconds passed and the man who was pointing at me did not pull the trigger. He called a soldier and said, 'Write it down, and if he does not say where the weapons are, you know ...'. They fired a second cannon shot and then took the cannon to the School of Arts and Crafts. My people lay on the ground. The soldier was still pointing at me, shouts and orders were heard as the troops knocked down doors and windows and entered firing at the buildings. "
As soon as they entered, the military asked to identify the student leaders. Osiel Núñez, president of the Federation of Students of the UTE, did so. It was immediately separated and the blows started. "Where are the guns?" Was the cry that was repeated:
"They beat me and threatened to kill me. I was shot two times on one side so that I would decide to speak. I insisted that there were no weapons in the university. At that moment they came to inform the commanding officer that a confrontation was taking place at the School of Arts and Trades. I ask this military man to allow me to attend to avoid a massacre. You accept. I arrive at the place, asking the students to leave the school, assuring that they would not be shot, beginning to leave principally officials. Then I'm taken to another sector, where I do the same, but the students do not get to leave because the military enters violently, firing. I ask the commanding officer to stop the shots to avoid unnecessary deaths. The shots stop and students begin to leave. But the military continues the shooting "(32).
Student Boris Navia Pérez recounts: "The military took students, teachers and officials, men and women, and between the butt, force us to tend in the street, in front of the central house, including the rector himself. In this place, we stayed all morning and part of the afternoon. In the distance we could see bundles lying down, which made the neighborhood think we were all dead. Among these people was Victor Jara "(33).
Many of the students and professors who remained in the UTE saw Victor Jara lying on the floor and his hands on the back of his head, like all his classmates. This is remembered by one of the students who was taken prisoner:
"We are transferred to the soccer field of the School of Arts and Crafts. Victor is in my same line. It was hours before we got on the buses. We were placed on our knees on the floor of the microphone, with our heads down and our hands on the back of our heads. Victor traveled in the same micro as me. "
Mario Aguirre Sánchez: "The action of Osiel Nunez managed to dissuade the military and convinced them to moderate their behavior so that people could leave and not be machine-gunned. In a field of the School of Arts we were kept on the ground, being beaten by the military who guarded us while they were raiding different dependencies. There was no resistance. Around noon, the search and the transfer of detainees on buses begins. They led us with our heads down, to prevent us from seeing the place of detention. "
Enrique Kirberg: "Then I got a jeep. At the side of the street, the women with their arms up, formed a line. Someone pulled my wife out of line to say goodbye. We hugged each other tightly. I would not see her in eleven months ... ".
Rector Kirberg was taken to the Tacna Regiment, where he heard firing squads and was convinced that his turn would soon be. "And since I am an enemy of tragicomic things, I doubted whether or not to shout something before the discharge. I noticed that his body was damp and my heart was pounding. I wanted to take out a paper and leave a message to my family ... I regretted ... When I was ready, they came to pick me up and got me in a jeep. " From there he was taken to a subway of the Ministry of Defense, where he again witnessed blows and insults. "On my knees, I saw a corporal who was walking around the room with a yatagan in his hand. An officer pulled me out, got me in a jeep and took me to Estadio Chile. "
When the prisoners of the Technical University arrived at Estadio Chile in the late hours of the afternoon of September 12, they were received by a military contingent whose characteristics recalls the then non-official of the Arica Regiment of La Serena, Pedro Rodríguez Bustos, who had participated in The assault on the UTE:
"The captains Rafael Ahumada Valderrama, Captain Joaquín Molina Fuenzalida [who was assassinated on November 9, 1988] and the lieutenant Jorge Herrera López [all of the Tacna Regiment] received the detainees from the UTE in the Chile Stadium. I was able to observe these officers at the time when it was my turn to deliver UTE detainees on September 12. They received the prisoners in their capacity as site managers. Captain Ahumada was an officer of Intelligence, so I presume he had to participate in the interrogations with other officers of Tacna. "
A regime of terror
Among the almost 600 prisoners of the Technical University that arrive at the Estadio Chile, there is a 16 year old girl, a student of 4th Humanities of the Liceo Darío Salas (located in Avenida España). On the 11th, with some of her schoolmates, Lelia watched with a shudder and in the distance the bombing of La Moneda. Soon after, along with 12 other liceans, they decided to leave to the Abelardo Núñez Normal School, located a few blocks from the UTE. They spent the night there.
At 6:00 the next morning, a contingent of police officers stormed the school and arrested them. They lay on the floor of the driveway, face down, and hands at the nape of the neck for about two hours. Suddenly, the carabineros stopped them and took them to the front of the UTE, where they were delivered to a group of soldiers with orange bracelet. Lelia does not forget that sergeant who fed them and had them go to a house so they could telephone their families and go into the bathroom. From the conversation they learned that they came from La Serena ("Arica" ​​Regiment). They did not know that they would soon enter hell. Lelia recalled:
"Upon entering the Chile Stadium, we are placed in a row with hands at the nape of the neck and jumping. At the entrance there were four or five tables attended by people in civilian who wore suits and ties. They asked our names, militancy and the reason for our arrest. They also took away our identity card, which we later had to withdraw from the Ministry of Defense, as instructed. They separate us: men to a gallery, women to another. On the afternoon of the 12th, an army official gave us a speech: he said that the days of Marxism were over ... "
UTE student Mario Aguirre Sánchez also recalled that harangue: "A military man who identified himself as the person in charge of the compound, took a microphone and made a harangue saying that he was authorized to kill and did not want to be deprived of that taste. He intimidated us by saying that the soldiers also had this authorization with the machine guns that fired 30 rounds per second and were known as "the mountains of Hitler" since they cut to those who murdered.
Years later (2004), Colonel Mario Manríquez Bravo (34) will recognize in a confrontation: "It is effective that I told the prisoners that these weapons had been known in World War II as 'the Hitler mountains', characterized by A high cadence of shooting that could cut one person in two. "
The conscript C.E., of the endowment of Tejas Verdes, entered the Estadio Chile around 11:00 of the 12 of September. Remember: "Trucks were arriving with prisoners. Lieutenant Pedro Barrientos orders us to form a cordon for the line of detainees to which many give the butts. Once the detainees entered the stadium, Sergeant Mella distributed us in different sectors to guard the prisoners, located in the parade and on the court, since in the gallery there was a machine gun point 30, in charge of a soldier who had The order to shoot in case of anything. It was my turn to be on the south-west side of the galleries, where there were about 70 foreigners of different nationalities. [And it gives the names of officers Jorge Smith Gumucio, Rodrigo Rodríguez Fuschloger and Jorge Garcés Von Hohenstein, who commanded them 35)]. The stay in the compound was not good, since we did not receive food for about three days and less the detainees, besides that there was no water and the bathrooms were unhealthy. "
Enrique Kirberg: "As soon as I arrived at Estadio Chile, I was placed against the wall, with my shoes glued to the wall and arms raised. A soldier was pointing at me. I saw more people arrive, in a row and with their hands up and trotting. I saw Víctor Jara pass me by. He gave me the broad smile that characterized him. I waved at him with my hand ... An hour later I was put on another jeep and taken back to the Tacna Regiment (36). "
UTE professor Carlos Orellana is also hands on the back of the neck of the line of prisoners waiting for his entrance to the stadium: "We were several thousand prisoners. The military had formed groups and each detainee had a number. Victor Jara stayed in my group. I saw it when an officer beat him. It seems that the officer recognized him, approached him and punched him in the face. Victor received the blow without falling. The officer called some soldiers and ordered them to be taken away. That happened in the corridors of the stadium. The soldiers took Victor by the arms and led him to the subsoil. Before this incident Víctor did not present any wound ".
Professor Ricardo Iturra Moyano: "On arrival at Estadio Chile, in the same row as myself, about fifteen people ahead, was Victor Jara. The moment he entered the stadium, a uniformed man stopped him and projected him violently against the wall, while insulting him and giving him blows ... Then, when Victor Jara came to sit in front of me, I noticed that he was holding his hands forward, with the Fingers cramped and seemed to suffer terribly "(37).
UTE professor César Fernández Carrasco was also in that row of prisoners: "Víctor Jara was in the line four or five men behind me. A soldier identified him and informed his superior. Victor Jara was held by several soldiers and beaten. His chest was hit so hard with the butts of the rifles that he fell to the ground ... "(38).
Julia Fuentes says she did not see Victor Jara inside the Estadio Chile, but like almost all the conscripts, soldiers and officers who dominated the precinct, she knew that she was there. Julia was not a prisoner, but in a sense she was. Because Julia was cook of the stadium before the day of September 11 and 12 arrived to its house a military patrol that led it directly to the sports enclosure. For a month, with no right to leave, he cooked for the officers and something for the conscripts in charge of the Prisoners' Field. She entered escorted to the place she knew so much, through a corridor located to the right side of the ticket booths. They warned him to walk forward without looking:
"It was inevitable, I did ... there was a group of half-naked men, lying on the ground, piling one on top of the other. I did not know if they were alive or dead, but the skin was very dark in color, and I could not tell if it was from bruises or bruises. I also saw hands, many hands that were shaking and asked for water. I went up to the second floor directly to the casino and to the kitchen and where I transited I had no vision on the court. In the dining room the soldiers ate, but at separate tables the officers. The first 15 days I slept on a mat in the same kitchen. Then they gave me a piece. I remember seeing from the kitchen when soldiers gathered all the tables in the dining room and out of their pockets they took out handfuls of bills that had stolen the prisoners. I remember seeing in a corridor prisoners being pushed by the soldiers who nailed the bayonets to them. He had also felt many shots in the interior all day long, both from rifles and machine guns, which he recognized for his unmistakable clatter ... Several days after they took me to the stadium, a soldier told me secretly in the kitchen: 'We were finished with the singer Víctor Jara, because they killed him. ' That same soldier told me a few days later in private: 'Tonight, 40 trucks loaded with dead will be taken out of the stadium to leave Cerro Chena' "(39).
The technical draftsman Guillermo Orrego Valdebenito was not taken prisoner in the UTE, but he did see Victor Jara in the Estadio Chile. In 1973 he worked for Standard Electric, located in the industrial belt Vicuña Mackenna. He was arrested in Textil Progreso on the afternoon of September 12 along with 60 other workers, who were taken by bus to Estadio Chile by police and army personnel:
"About September 13 or 14, I remember spending time with Victor Jara, whom I immediately recognized since, as well as being a recognized artist, I worked as a teacher at the UTE where I took afternoon classes in technical drawing. It was plain to see that he had been mistreated and badly beaten in the face, although he was in good spirits. Victor was surrounded by students and people of the UTE. Very close to them was a group from CORFO. "
One of those professionals arrested at the headquarters of the Corporation for the Development of Production (CORFO), engineer Julio Del Rio Navarrete, recalls:
"On September 12 I was arrested at the CORFO headquarters, located in Ramón Nieto with Moneda, along with the other professionals we were there, among whom I can mention Alfredo Cabrera Contreras, a commercial engineer; Hugo Pavez Lazo, lawyer; Gustavo Muñoz López, commercial engineer, and others whose names I do not remember. We were transferred on foot through the center of Santiago to La Moneda and sent to the Ministry of Defense, where we were interrogated and beaten in the underground. In the afternoon of the 13th, we were transferred to the Estadio Chile in microbuses. We entered through the street access to Unión Latinoamericana, where we saw Officer Mario Manríquez for the first time, who welcomed us and asked where we came from. When we responded, he said that we were the 'system or government ideologues' and that we were Communists. He drew a pistol, passed a bullet, put it on my temple, and asked what my militancy was. Responding that he was independent, he said he was lying and that we were all independent now. At that moment they removed the corpse of a child who must not have been more than 12 or 13 years old, to which Manríquez told us that the same thing would happen to us if we did not tell the truth. He then sent us to the subway where there was a group of eight young officers with red berets. We were placed against the wall. They tied our hands behind us and beat us on the back with fists and feet. An officer beat us with a lynch. We were asked where the weapons were and especially where Pedro Vuscovic had been, who had been Minister of Economy and until that time executive vice president of CORFO. They even asked about the compensation we received. Until Mario Manríquez arrived, commander of the enclosure, accompanied by his staff, formed precisely by the officers who beat us. A dialogue took place that lasted approximately two hours, where it was discussed and talked about the government of the Popular Unity. I told Manríquez that I was in charge of the logistics that supplied the Army, Navy and Air Force, so he had a lot of contact with officers of the Armed Forces, which he also complied with direct instructions from the President of the Republic . In the middle of the dialogue, Manríquez said that we were 'recoverable'. In the conversation intervened an officer who stated that he had been imprisoned until September 11 by the facts known as the 'Tanquetazo', similar situation of other officers, he said. As we told Manríquez our concern about the repeated robberies of those we had been objects, he said he took charge. We handed him our money and he gave Alfredo Cabrera a card that included his usual place of work: the Army's Administrative Support Command, located in Alameda when he arrived in Portugal. He told us to come later to find the money for this place and to give it back to us. And so it did, when we regained our freedom. Once the conversation ended, Manríquez ordered us to bring food and give us sleeping mats, at the request of the officers. We fall asleep. After a time that I can not specify, I was awakened by Souper, an officer of thin build, short stature and very fine face. He said that we should climb to the bleachers because we were in danger there ... We understood immediately: we had already experienced the interrogation. Once we were climbed to the bleachers, we were placed on the north side, where a selected group of prisoners was located. There was Victor Victor too. He was alone, with no people around him and in the high part, near a transmission booth. Hours earlier, when we were still in the subway, I'd spotted him in a dressing room. His face was well known. He was very bad, beaten and with a practically closed eye. With my colleagues, we decided to go see him to know what he needed. He had his face swollen by blows and a closed eye, it looks like the right one. His hands could not move them, they were fractured, swollen and sore. We stayed with Victor about an hour or two until we were taken down to the field to be transferred to the National Stadium. "(40)
The technical draftsman Guillermo Orrego witnessed another fact that graphs what in those hours lived Víctor Jara and the more than five thousand prisoners of Estadio Chile:
"On one occasion, a military man sent me to the infirmary with another detainee who had a fit of nerves and who worked in Textil Progreso. In the infirmary, as well as in the foyer leading to the stadium's entrance, perpendicular to the Alameda, I could see several people lying on the ground who did not move. They could have been around 20. Some were covered with white sheets, but they were all bloody. I heard some groans. No one guarded them. The officers in charge were from the Army, wore an olive-green uniform with garnet red berets. The military man in charge of the enclosure was an officer who would have been between 40 and 50 years old, with a mustache and a little corpulent, whom I later recognized in the press as an officer named Manríquez. There were other officers, more than 20, who distinguished themselves because they gave orders and were imposed by their voice of command. Some of them wore black berets and others a kind of olive-green speck. With greater certainty I remember a black beret officer, thick mustache and black and dark complexion, who fired a blast of submachine gun into the air and another who called himself 'The Prince', since when he went to the prisoners he had no need to use Microphones: he said he had 'voice of prince'. He was a tall officer of medium build, very white complexion, no mustache, fair blond hair. I do not remember wearing a beret or cape. He carried a lynchaco with which he beat the detainees, being especially cruel and vulgar in his treatment "(41).
The judicial investigation was advanced and when Commander Mario Manríquez could no longer deny the dead at Estadio Chile and he was not the commanding officer, he said:
"At the time of being in the Stadium, I telephoned my hierarchical superior of the CAE, Colonel Martinez, to whom I informed him that he was operating intelligence personnel in the subway of the Stadium, which belonged to the four branches of the Armed Forces. He ordered me to let them run, as they were doing an important job considering the state of the country ... I have the inner certainty that the people of Intelligence of the subway also removed prisoners and took them out of the stadium, since they had their own vehicles and not There was no control over them: they obeyed only their institutional commands. I remember that one of the young lieutenants of the Armored Regiment was always with a lynch. The use of a weapon like the lynchaco is not part of the Army's training "(42).
"There was a lieutenant of Germanic characteristics, in a garnet beret, who was very crazy and beat the detainees a lot. The soldiers and captives themselves worried about him, since their reaction was not known. No one approved of his action, but being an officer nobody told him anything. Even the commander, Colonel Manríquez, did not know what to do with him. The conscripts said 'The Prince', "says a soldier in the case file.
The young student Lelia took years to get the voice and hands of "The Prince" from above: "I was in Estadio Chile until 18 September. During those days I suffered multiple molestation, sexual assault and torture in interrogation sessions. The interrogations were made in the dressing rooms and baths of the stadium, and the interrogators changed. Among them I remember one called 'The Prince', who tortured me on several occasions "(43).
One of the prisoners at Estadio Chile complements the stories and describes 'El Príncipe': "Tall and blond with orange scarf around his neck. He boasted loudly that these Marxists would now have to pay him for having arrested him on June 29 [the day of the Tanquetazo]. "
And yes, precisely at Estadio Chile was a group of officers who staged the rebellion of the Armored Regiment No. 2. They had been assigned to the prison camp were barely released on the same day 11, as they were prosecuted for the crime of military uprising . It is interesting to contrast the testimony of the witnesses about the physical description of "El Príncipe", made by the then lieutenant and now brigadier (R) and prosperous businessman Raúl Jofre, of the officers who affirmed that they accompanied him in Estadio Chile Edwin Dimter, Rodrigo Fuschloger and Luis Bethke Wulf (44). Jofré, also protagonist of the rebellion of Armored Nº 2, said:
"Edwin Dimter was thin, tall, fair complexion blond and strong and strong. He must have been six feet five inches tall, and I do not think he used a garnet beret, he must have used a pencil. Luis Bethke, of the Infantry weapon, was sturdy, a little lower than Dimter, of white complexion, blond hair and with a strong tone of voice. Rodrigo Rodríguez Fushlocher was tall, six feet high, had been a national basketball player, had dark brown hair and was not a white complexion ... I remember these officers because with Rodríguez Fuschlocher and Bethke we slept in the same room in the stadium " .
Brigadier Raúl Jofré (45), who did not recall before the court that there were machine guns located in the upper part of the Chile Stadium, did gather his memory and affirmed:
"The officer who can respond to these traits is Edwin Dimter (46), with whom I served a year in the Armored Regiment, but we always had a strictly professional relationship and we were not friends. The personality of Dimter was that of a person of difficult treatment, very intelligent, but with little criterion and had a great physical presence. I am not very clear what activities he developed at Estadio Chile "(47).
In the process, Dimter denied any relationship with 'The Prince'. He said that while he was in the Chile Stadium used "combat had: parka regulation gray gray and as head cover the code of the regulation. I did not wear a beret. " And he will repeat: "I am not the officer who has been described nor maltreated nor killed a prisoner in the Estadio Chile." And then he will elaborate on other officers who might correspond to those characteristics:
"A lieutenant less old than me, of Rodriguez Fuschlocher, who was Concepcion and basketball player, taller than me, athletic in texture and light brown hair. There were also two other officers who had German surnames: Lieutenant Bethke, who was as tall as I was, thin and light-haired. The other officer, was a lieutenant older than me, by the name of Haase [refers to Nelson Haase (48), of Texas Green that yes was in Estadio Chile], of the weapon of Engineers, who was in Santiago in medical treatment In the Military Hospital for a disease related to mental health, as he referred to me "(49).
But conscript CA, of the Texas Green Envoy, did see Lieutenant Edwin Dimter (50) torture and murder a prisoner: a young man described as "well dressed and looking as if he were from a well-off family, Said to be a student of Architecture. " Dimter had arrived with a block of drawings that belonged to the young man and accused him of "making plans for military installations". The conscript witnessed how Dimter interrogated him in German, then assassinated him "from a shot in his head with a GIS gun." AC Remembered the scene that followed and it was recorded: "He jumped the young man's brain to the wall ... Then, Lieutenant Dimter took out the Seiko watch that the young man carried on his wrist, and handed it to Major Manriquez saying: It's a trophy of war! '"
An incident that occurred around September 14 shook the conscripts of Texas Green. Almost everyone remembers:
"When I was on duty, I was relieved by another conscript, and I was on my way to the gallery corridor, when I heard a shot and went to where it had taken place, noting that the soldier M. had shot a young man who had attacked him , Leaving the soldier very badly anonymous, "recalls the CE conscript
The author of the shooting also related: "About 15 September, around 20:00, a detainee who had been severely beaten by other officers, I tried to take off the GIS gun, wrestling with him as he tried to take it out of me. Instinctively I missed a shot, giving it to the chest or stomach. I was taken to the exit by a group of Army officers of varying degrees. Even the head of the compound arrived, Colonel Manríquez, who told me that what he had done was right, since the detainee could have taken the rifle and would have been a greater evil. "
Victor does not come home
Joan Jara waited anxiously for her husband's return. But Victor Jara did not return on September 12. Together with his daughters he tried to follow the course of events from his home. Until in the afternoon, the television gave him the news that the Technical University had been taken by the military and that "a large number of extremists had been arrested." On Thursday 13 he learned that teachers and students of the UTE had been taken to Estadio Chile. That same afternoon he received a call:
"At 16:30 a boy called. He told me that he had been in Estadio Chile, that he had been able to leave and that he had a message for me from Victor. The last message Victor sent me was to have courage, to take care of the girls, that he thought he would not be able to leave the stadium, that he thought of us ... We were locked up in the house without knowing what to do, without information. "
Joan Jara never lied. Each of his testimonies was always attached to the truth. Years later would appear the last person who transmitted the message of her husband: Hugo González González
"I was arrested on September 12 on the public road by curfew and taken to Estadio Chile. On September 13 I met Victor Jara in a kind of corridor, next to the court. He was alone and seated, without military custody, with physical signs of having been severely beaten, his face being the most notorious wounds. I went to talk to him. He told me that he had been arrested at the Technical University and had been recognized at the stadium by the commander of the compound: a military man with mustaches, a little solid, with black hair and middle-aged. That this officer had separated him from the other detainees, and was subsequently subjected to physical constraints by the same officer. Víctor Jara indicated to me that he was threatened by the commander of Estadio Chile, without specifying to me what type of threat. And he asked me to call his spouse, Joan Turner, to let him know where his renoleta was, which he had left parked near the Technical University. I left free on September 14, 1973. I do not know if Víctor Jara continued in the place where I saw him, since after our first meeting I only saw it once more, in the same place, without being able to specify the exact day. After leaving, I fulfilled what I had promised Victor Jara and gave his message to Joan Turner. I called her from a public telephone that was in the Alameda to the number that Victor Jara pointed out to me. I told Mrs. Turner the location of the renoleta and she asked me about Victor's condition. I told him that he was well ... "(51).

The threat received by Victor Jara and kept in his memory Hugo Gonzalez, had another witness: Wolfgang Tirado, then a prisoner at the Estadio Chile:


"On the morning of September 13, I was able to change my location in Estadio Chile and get closer to the bars where the liberation procedures took place. There I saw Victor Jara again. I noticed he was talking to an Army officer who had recognized him. I saw that they pushed him and beat him with his feet. I remember the officer waving his hand through his neck, motioning for Victor to cut off his head. The officer ordered two soldiers to take him aside. At that moment he was kicked and kicked. I did not see Victor again after that "(52).



Architect Miguel Lawner also saw Victor Jara on September 13. Lawner, who was the chief executive of the Urban Improvement Corporation (CORMU), had been detained in his office, where he remained with other workers in the same entity until 12 September. He was taken to Estadio Chile and left there thanks to the intervention of General Arturo Viveros, as a result of the relationship between the two by an agreement signed between the Army and CORMU. Lawner would be able to leave alive of the Chile Stadium to be sent, like the rector of the Technical University, Enrique Kirberg, like prisoner to Isla Dawson. He never imagined that the episode of his encounter with General Viveros in those days of the Chile Stadium would be important to identify 30 years later to the commander of the Stadium Chile. This is what Miguel Lawner related in the process:


"When I returned to the stadium access room, carrying the mats, on a ladder with an iron railing, about 6 or 7 meters, I could see Victor Jara. I was alone. Soldiers guarded him in the vicinity, so I approached, being able to see that he was very beaten and tortured, despite which he remained standing. What I remember is that it must have been very late. That 13 of September of 1973 was the last time that I could see Víctor Jara alive "(53).


Boris Navia: "On Thursday 13, in the afternoon, there was a big stir in the stadium when several buses arrived bringing people from La Legua. They were said to have resisted the military with weapons. There were dead people, some very badly wounded and others taken to the subways. There was a transient oblivion of the existence of Víctor Jara. And then, the professors and officials of the UTE that closely watched the fate of Victor, we took advantage of that moment to drag him to the galleries and try to make one more of the prisoners. He watched with one eye, since the other had him totally inflamed. We wiped the blood from his face and a carpenter from the UTE gave him his vest to give him a coat. In our attempt to disguise his figure, someone provided us with nail clippers and we very carefully began to cut his curly hair so characteristic. A soldier gave him a raw egg. He said he would eat it like the peasants of Lonquén did: he drilled it in the lower part and then sucked it. Victor was revived. Despite his injuries, he shared his fears about his family and his friends. "


Carlos Orellana: "On Thursday the 13th I met Victor Jara when the military began to organize the prisoners in groups. His face was badly battered and swollen and blood on his face and clothing. His hands were very swollen and he could only move them with great difficulty. He told us that he had been beaten for much of the night by the same entry officer. And he told us that this officer recognized him and was the brother of a man with whom he had had an altercation two or three years earlier at the Saint George School in Santiago, where he had sung Questions for Puerto Montt, an incident involving some students, They were the brother of the officer and one of the children of the minister to whom the song alluded [Edmundo Pérez Zujovic, who was Interior Minister of President Eduardo Frei Montalva and who was assassinated by an extremist command the 8 of June of 1971]. The officer had evoked this fact during the course of the night ... Victor stayed with us for two or two and a half days. "


Orellana's account is corroborated by another prisoner: "On Thursday 13, when Victor Jara finally went up to the bleachers, along with Carlos Orellana and other detainees, we healed as we could his wounds. We took turns to go to the bathroom and wet our handkerchiefs with which we made compresses to calm the swelling. On Friday the 14th, around 11:00 a.m., a relative sent me with a sergeant a few cookies and a jar of marmalade. The biscuits were easy to dispense, but how to spread the jam? It occurred to us that each one had the right to put his finger in the jar, to turn it around and take it out to suck it ... I seem to see Victor's finger dripping with jam today ... He was much better: his lips and face had deflated a little bit".


It costs that some conscript or official who was in those days of September in Estadio Chile speak of Víctor Jara. Everyone knows he was one of the prisoners, but they keep quiet. It seems that, over the years, the secret that has surrounded his death, imposed by the Army, has permeated each of the men. But also, there is guilt. Much guilt and memories of all those men and women who died there, whose identity and quantity are unknown. But in those days of 1973 what prevailed was total impunity. Because the power was greater the officers and soldiers that acceded to the enclosure where the detainees were interrogated. Where, within a few days, according to the most reliable judicial testimony, officers of the Army War Academy arrived.


The then lieutenant Pedro Rodríguez Bustos, who participated in the assault on the UTE and whose unit was later assigned as reinforcement to the Tacna Regiment, reports:


"I remember that on September 16 or 17, it was my second visit to Estadio Chile, where I could see that the conditions of the prisoners were bad, you could tell they were tired people, although I can not say that they were beaten. This time I noticed that the situation of the stadium had varied. The guard of the same continued corresponding to personnel of the Army, of the Tacna Regiment, but the ones in charge of the interrogations inside the stadium and to check the detainees, was personnel of the Intelligence area of ​​the Garrison of Army of Santiago, with reinforcement of students of Second and Third Years of the War Academy, with the rank of major and lieutenant colonel, with the mission to conduct the interrogations. "



Among those officers of the War Academy who arrive at Estadio Chile to reinforce the interrogation teams, two names are repeated: Major Hernán Chacón Soto, then a first year student at the academy, and Victor Echeverría Henríquez, of the second year. The latter, who retired as a colonel, would later be seen in Villa Grimaldi, one of the main secret prisons of the DINA (his daughter would later be Undersecretary of the Navy, in the Ministry of Defense of Michelle Bachelet, 2006- 2010, but could not assume as under-secretary of the Armed Forces in 2014 after other accusations of torture against his father were made public).


Colonel Juan Jara Quintana, who was also destined in those days at Estadio Chile, reported:


"In addition, about 40 officers of the Army War Academy, of the First and Second years, were in the Estadio Chile, who fulfilled a schedule of four hours and were relieved by their own companions since the academy was very close to them: In Garcia Reyes with Alameda. Among those who were in control of the entry of detainees from Estadio Chile, I remember officers Rubén Burgos Vargas, Victor Echeverria Henríquez (who was my second commander in the Rancagua Regiment in Arica in late 1980), Sergio Urrutia Francke, Patricio Vásquez Donoso and Hernán Chacón Soto, among others "(54).


The testimony of Jara was extended by another of the officers of the War Academy that would be destined to Estadio Chile: the officer Alejandro González Samohod, who became an important general of the military regime. Gonzalez acknowledged having been at the stadium and claimed to have also met there with his War Academy classmate, Richard Quass:


"Days before September 11, as a student of Strategic Conduct, Third Year, in the War Academy, I was assigned as a member of the headquarters of the commander of the Military Forces of the Metropolitan Region, under the command of General Sergio Arellano Stark. During the 10 days that I was there, about three I had to perform functions in the Estadio Chile, since I was sent to collaborate in the security of the enclosure, without direct contact with the detainees.


Raúl Jofré would corroborate the role of the officers of the War Academy in the installation of the prison camps, when he stated: "It was at lunchtime on September 12, when my colonel Oscar Coddou, at that time head of a barracks General of the Garrison Command and professor of the War Academy, sent me to reinforce the Chile Stadium, which was being created as a provisional detention center waiting for the National Stadium. " Jofré also said that among the interrogators was "a reserve officer of the Navy, surnamed Prieto [Daniel Prieto Vidal, who is currently presenting himself as an 'international affairs consultant', stated on October 26, 2007. He has a long history in Intelligence Of the Navy] ".


"At the gateway to the stadium, on the northeast side, was access to the subway. In that door there was an officer with outgoing from the Army, who ordered the various prisoners to be ordered. The detainees were interrogated in this underground. It was a closed sector with only one access. On one occasion, out of curiosity, I tried to go down to that sector, but another soldier pointed out that he did not recommend it to me, since they had recently killed someone and was full of blood. From the outside, the shots were not heard. In this place there were probably personnel of Intelligence of the Army ", counts the conscript C.E.


The conscript M.C., recalls: "The interrogations were conducted in a subway that was located on the ground floor where the dressing rooms were. We did not have access to this place, but the officers, including Rodrigo Rodríguez and Jorge Smith, as well as civilians and other Army officers. To be taken to this place, detainees were commonly removed from the galleries by soldiers who guarded that sector. They came back in very bad shape ... One time, at night, he could not point to date, being sentry guard in the gallery located in front of the entrance, which had a small view to the door of the interrogation room that gave Towards the exit of the stadium, I noticed that they took several bodies, almost naked. They were taken to an ambulance, which left with unknown direction. It was a common comment that from that place, at night, they took the corpses out of the subway. From comments of the same soldiers it was known that Victor Jara was being held in the stadium, but I do not know where. One day, around 2:00 PM, another conscript told me that Víctor Jara had died ... I did not want to consult any more. "


The conscript C.E .: "In the stadium I was in charge of caring for foreigners, about 60, including two Mexicans who were in the hall in bad physical condition. On one occasion, it may be between 13 or 14 September, in the afternoon, a garnet beret officer of the armored specialty, sent me to custody of two detainees that he himself told me were Mexican. After about twenty minutes, he tells me to accompany him along with the detainees, leading me to the outside, just down the street from Bascuñan Guerrero, where a machine gun was stationed. The lieutenant told me to leave the detainees on the way and that he would take them for a walk, and headed for the machine gun. It was the term to indicate that they would be shot. In a few minutes I felt the blast, presuming that they were killed. It was common to feel her shooting, especially at night. The dead were thrown to the excavation of the works of the Metro, which were picked up by an ambulance that passed daily, which I could see from a distance: a white vehicle like a hospital. It was commented that the lieutenant who gave me the order to care for these two Mexicans, was the same one that had hit the tank with the doors of the Ministry of Defense for the 'Tanquetazo'. He was distinguished from the rest of the officers because he wore a garnet beret. "



"Take a walk". An expression that until today shakes many of the soldiers who passed through the Estadio Chile. For most it means firing. But also, where would proceed to execution. The conscript G.M., says short and direct: "The phrase meant that the detainees were going to shoot them or in the street that led to the Alameda or underground." "It meant that the detainees were going to shoot them in the street to the Alameda," says the soldier M.T.


The stands of the Chile Stadium were filled with prisoners. The bathrooms collapsed, there was no water or food. Many came from the industries of the industrial cords. Manuel Bustos, who was in September 1973 a Christian Democrat union leader and president of the textile industry union Sumar, also saw Víctor Jara:


"In the morning [of September 11] we made an assembly to repudiate the coup. On my shift there were about a thousand workers and I argued that we should retire. But as many did not reach far because there was no collective locomotion, they returned to the factory seeking refuge. As president of the union, I decided to stay in the factory with about 300 people who failed to retire when the curfew was announced. On the 12th, about 6 o'clock in the morning, the military arrived in trucks. They threw us all to the ground and began to beat us. I tried to explain, but I got more hits. I was arrested with about 150 workers. We got hands on the back of the neck and carried us to Chile Stadium. I remember that a worker was killed very close to me. I never knew his name, but the image was etched. Military men were passing through the corridors and with the machine gun one hit his face. The man yelled 'fascist!' And they shot him. It was stuck to me. Two companions of Sumar went crazy because of what they saw. One already died and the other is wandering around ... I saw Victor Jara from a distance. "


The arrival of the new prisoners has other witnesses. As the protagonists of the peculiar cargoes that would start to leave from the Tacna Regiment in the direction of the Estadio Chile. Al-Tacna had taken the prisoners who survived the attack on La Moneda, who would soon join forces, as had been established by the coup war command - also made up of officers of the Army War Academy - hundreds more Prisoners from the industrial cords. The order was that in the Tacna would be only the prisoners of La Moneda. Shortly afterwards they would be killed in Peldehue.


Sub-Lieutenant Ivan Herrera López of the Tacna Regiment participated in these summary executions. It received the order of the commander of the regiment, Joaquin Ramírez Pineda to transfer the prisoners of La Moneda to Peldehue, next to the second lieutenant Castillo. Who received in that field of military training to the prisoners, was Lieutenant Julio Vandorsee Cerda, of the Artillery Weapon (55).



Who certified the deaths in the site itself, and then informed the chiefs of the General Staff of the coup, was the greatest Pedro Espinoza, of the same group of Intelligence of the General Staff. The now brigadier (R), affirmed: "The only thing that corresponded to me to realize extraordinary form in September of 1973, was that the 12 was ordered to me, on the part of the general Nicanor Diaz, to go to the Command of Garrison, where it would be given to me A document to be taken to the commander of the Tacna Regiment. I went to the office of the general's [Herman] Brady's assistant, commander of the Garrison, who handed me a sealed envelope that I transferred to the Tacna Regiment and handed it to the second commander named Fernandez. I told him, also on the instructions of General Díaz Estrada, that he should release all Investigation personnel. I must add that the following day I received the order of the same general to witness the execution of the detainees of La Moneda, with the obligation to inform the return the result "(56).


It was not, however, the only execution of prisoners to which Pedro Espinoza was linked in those days. According to the author's investigation, on September 14, she arrived at the sixth police station, located in San Francisco Street, to take members of the GAP and the son of Mirya Contreras, the secretary and companion of Salvador Allende, arrested on the morning of 11 At the gates of La Moneda. All of them were killed and then thrown into a street in Santiago. (57)


The rest of the detainees in Tacna were taken to Estadio Chile, with exceptions, which remain unclear. The civilian Army official Eliseo Cornejo, who moved some of these cargoes, reports:


"I was a bus driver, a truck and a jeep assigned to the Logistics Battery of the Tacna Regiment. And it was my duty to lead detainees who were in the regiment's pits ... I think many of them came from the industrial cordon, especially I remember Madeco and the textiles Hirmas and Sumar. There were also other people arrested by curfew. On that occasion, I drove the bus with approximately 60 people, being escorted by two jeeps with regiment personnel, an officer and plant personnel. All the vehicles were parked in street Latin American Union and escorted by two conscripts were made to go down the detainees and to advance by the passage by which one enters the stadium, distant to about 100 meters. As a driver I had to make about three trips to the Chile Stadium, driving the same bus and transferring detainees "(58).


The soldier C.A. Acknowledged having seen Víctor Jara in Estadio Chile. He claimed to have met him on September 14 between 5:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. "in the hall, east corridor, on the way back from the round, when he came with the commander of my section, Rodrigo Rodríguez Fuschloger" . And he adds that he later saw a civilian person call him "to an interrogation". AC Also saw Litre Quiroga, the former director of Prisons of the Allende government, in the same stadium.


Conscript G.B, from the Green Texas staff, was a direct witness to how Lieutenant Edwin Dimter interrogated Litre Quiroga:


"When I wandered in the corridors, I saw many people killed ... One day, in the morning, on guard duty in the corridor of the east entrance facing the court, I saw Lieutenant Dimter with his group Of escorts mentioned the name of Litre Quiroga. The detainee was next to seven other people lying face down with their hands in the nape of the neck. Dimter proceeded to beat them both with his foot and with his butt on their bodies ... After midnight and being guarded on the ceiling of the room, in the north corner, I saw Litre Quiroga and the other seven people on the street. They were walking, one after the other, on Arturo Godoy Street, heading west, where soldiers were arranged in two rows, the middle being free and a jeep, apparently armored, with a reimetal (59) on its back. When the detainees passed they began to shoot them, then they all left the bodies lying on the ground ... I clearly identified Litre Quiroga, as I met him when interrogated in the stadium. And I know they were seven because I told them later and I certify that they were dead ... After a few minutes came a large, white, thermal truck, type freezer, with military. They went up the bodies and took them away. "

The soldier G.M. De Tejas Verdes: "Two or three days after we arrived, I was ordered to guard a detainee who was later told that it was Litre Quiroga, Prison director, who was in the entrance hall and to whom passing soldiers beat him . I was in his custody all the time, the one that another soldier whose name I do not remember recalled. "


Conscripto RA: "For comments of the conscripts, I learned that inside the stadium was the director of Prisons (today Gendarmerie), Don Litre Quiroga, who had removed the nails to General Roberto Viaux Marambio for the 'Tacnazo' Which Viaux led in the government of Frei Montalva]. It was characteristic, because he was big and fat. I remember no date, but it should have been between the 14th or 15th of September, when I was changing shift, I observed in the entrance hall to Liter Quiroga, which was lying on the floor, in bad physical condition, but alive. I know this because I complained a lot. I did not see anyone else around. With the passing of the days I did not see him again nor did I know what happened to him. "


Carlos Orellana: "On Saturday, 15, being in the stands, a soldier came to look for Victor Jara. This distressed us greatly. That same day, in the afternoon, a prisoner came to tell me that Victor Jara wanted to talk to me. I went to the urinals arranging them to pass in front of the office where I was detained. As I passed, I motioned for him to follow me. I met in the urinals under the guard of a soldier, who stood in front of the door. At that moment, Victor was very weak, he walked with great difficulty. His nose was broken. His face was even swollen. His shirt was full of blood. He spoke with difficulty. He told me that he had been beaten again. What he wanted to tell me was that, in his opinion, a spy had slipped into the group. Indeed, when he was interrogated, he warned a university employee who spoke very freely to the military and wanted to warn us of this fact. The soldier put an end to the conversation. I never saw him again. When we left for the National Stadium, a Brazilian told us that he had seen him the night before, in the underground, lying on the ground. I could no longer speak. I had blood in my belly. "

César Fernández: "There was another group also separated from the rest of the detainees, in the upper part of the south gallery. Both groups had been separated because they were better known people. I recognized Osiel Núñez, president of the UTE Students' Federation, and a journalist and professor whose name I can not remember who made a very famous program of knowledge contests in radio and television [Mario Céspedes]. Víctor Jara stayed with our group for about a full day. There was then a reorganization of the prisoners in groups for the purpose of the transfer to the National Stadium. And in those circumstances, a couple of hours before our group left, some three or four military men came to find Victor Jara, beat him and took him to an unknown destination. "


Another of the prisoners reports: "On Friday the 14th in the afternoon we were constituted in groups of about 200 to be transferred to the National Stadium. Victor stayed in my group. He wrote in a small paper a poem titled Somos cinco mil. Then I learned that the poem came out, but with another title. The original that Víctor wrote was delivered to a companion who continues to live in Chile and who hid him in one of his socks, where he was discovered by the military in the interrogation that they did in the sadly celebrated velodrome of the National Stadium. Our group was the penultimate that went out to the National Stadium on Friday the 14th, like at 10:00 p.m. About two hours earlier a patrol came to find Victor, and in the midst of blows and insults, he was removed from us. When our group left Chile Stadium, through a side passageway, I spotted Victor in the stadium's entrance hall. He was on the floor and bleeding ... It was the last time I saw him. Victor did not arrive that night at the National Stadium. Neither that night nor in the following days ... ".


Lawyer Hugo Pavez: "On Friday, September 14, we were taken to the stands and there, a few meters away, I saw Victor Jara, who was half-faced with a very bruised and swollen face from the blows he received. He sat and did not speak. When they placed us in the bleachers they ordered us to sign up and then in different groups they were taken out of the stadium. The group I was in was the last to register. I saw Victor again the next day when we were trained on the court about to climb to a micro that moved us to the National Stadium. The Chile Stadium was practically empty. There was only a small group among those who were Víctor Jara and Danilo Bartulín, doctor of the staff of Salvador Allende "(61).


Boris Navia Pérez: "On the night of Friday the 14th we were about to get on the buses that took people to the National Stadium. Victor was with my group. However, a last order made us back and returned to the gallery where we spent the night. On the morning of Saturday, September 15, some prisoners were released and we all began to write small notes directed to our families to inform us that we were alive, hoping that some of the lucky ones could take our letters. Victor asks me for pencil and paper and begins to write what we all thought was a note for Joan, his wife. At that moment, he was sitting between Professor Carlos Orellana and I, when suddenly two soldiers approach and one hits a strong butt on the back and the other takes him by the collar of his jacket and drags him to the top Of the stadium. Victor releases the pencil and paper, and can barely take a few steps between his captors. That same Saturday, at 14:00, we were taken out of the Chile Stadium and in the foyer we witnessed a Dantesque spectacle: 40 or 50 corpses lying at the entrance, almost all stained white by the plaster that was in the underground, enclosure in that one Time in repairs. Among those bodies was Litre Quiroga, Director of Prisons and our beloved Victor Jara. His body was lying on his side, we could see his face and his clothes stained with blood ... On arriving at the National Stadium, beaten, tortured and saddened by the death of Victor, we find that the paper and pencil he asked me at Estadio Chile, Was not destined to write a letter, but gave life to the last expression of his song and poetry, writing his last poem.



UTE Engineering student Erika Osorio: "I returned to see Victor Jara on Friday, September 15, when I was taken down for the second time to the subway for questioning. When they took me out, an officer ordered the military officer to take care of me and move me to the UTE group that remained in the same subway, since they were going to kill us all. I could see, at the end of a kind of corridor in that sector, several dead people. Their corpses were superimposed. Others were still alive, but all with signs of physical abuse or injury. Among these people was Victor Jara. He was sitting on the floor, looking down at the floor. Her face was very wounded and above all her hands, the ones she had bloody. At the behest of the soldier who was fortunately leading me, I was able to be returned to the bleachers of the Estadio Chile, leaving the next day with a group of women who came from the Cordón Industrial de Cerrillos. "


After 40 years of the Coup, secret compartments of what happened on September 11, 1973, still open, because there were other troops destined for the Estadio Chile than those that until now were known. It is the precise case of the contingent that arrived from Antofagasta, of the "Emerald" Regiment. Colonel Juan Quintana was a lieutenant and second in command of the Second Rifle Company of that regiment on that date, a unit headed by Captain Jorge Ramón Durand González and also the second lieutenants Jose Luis Contreras Mora, Fernando Daguerrasar Franzani and Rolando López Álamos. It would be that group of soldiers come from Antofagasta one of the last to retire from the Estadio Chile. A window that opens new witnesses.


Colonel (R) Quintana reported:


"We leave Antofagasta at 00:00 hours, arriving at 4:00 p.m. to Group 10 of Cerrillos, with a total of 160 men. Once in Cerrillos, at about 7:00 am, we were transferred by bus to the Military Stadium, located in Rondizzoni [today Army Field Corps], meeting in the place with a force of 6500 men from all over Chile. The First Company of Fusiliers of the 'Emerald' Regiment was ordered to embark to Santiago 24 hours before, coming in charge of Lieutenant Alexander Hananías Barrios ... On the 15th, at about 8:00, by order of Captain Durand, the company Complete had to go to Estadio Chile where we were received by the commander Mario Manríquez Bravo who pointed out to us, together with Captain Durand, that in the precinct there were a total of 5500 detainees that came mainly from the companies of Cord Cerrillos and that our mission was custody Of all the detainees distributed only in the stands and on the court ... I am absolutely certain that in addition to the students of the War Academy, there was the 1st and 2nd year of Aspirants of Assistants of the School of Telecommunications in the Stadium Chile. But the First Company of Fusileros of the 'Emerald', in charge of the lieutenant Hananías, did not set foot in the Stadium Chile since it corresponded to them to be constituted in La Moneda after the military pronouncement. We were in the Estadio Chile the Second Complete Company, from 8:00 am on Saturday 15 to 9:00 am on Sunday, 16 th, when the total transfer of the 5500 political prisoners to the National Stadium began. Those who carried out the interrogations in the underground of the room or dressing rooms were lieutenants Edwin Dimter and Raul Jofré, among others ... I met inside the stadium to Litre Quiroga, general director of Prisons, whom I saw with some 30 extremist detainees in a hall To the entrance of the enclosure, called Patio Siberia. They were all bound in hands and feet, face down on the floor. Liter Quiroga wore a dark gray suit with white stripes, he was in poor physical condition and I lost track of him in the transfer to the National Stadium. When our company arrived at Estadio Chile, there were already the courses of the War Academy, being the last ones to arrive and the last ones to leave "(63).


Osiel Núñez: "On Saturday 15 I was isolated from the rest of the detainees, next to a Uruguayan marriage and an Argentine with shaved hair that was finally executed according to the version of a soldier. Approximately at 19:00, a row of prisoners was set up in front of a right side door. In that row I distinguished, among other 20 or 30 prisoners, Carlos Naudón, Mario Céspedes, Danilo Bartulín and Victor Jara. Moments before leaving, a young, white-skinned, almost-blond officer with a commanding voice passed, and he took Danilo Bartulin and Victor Jara out of the line. Victor placed him in an adjoining room and we were released. Victor I smile ... We were transferred to the National Stadium where they set up a dressing room for the so-called 'big fish'. Bartulin came to this dressing room, so Victor would have been left alone. "


That was the last time Victor Jara was seen alive.


The last link

It was a day of May of 2009 when the one who was conscript of Tejas Verdes, Jose Paredes Vásquez, was decided. Paredes was assigned to Estadio Chile and for 36 years kept the secret of what lived there, until arriving at a judge and reveal what he saw one day in the underground: Víctor Jara and Liter Quiroga were thrown against the wall. Behind the prisoners, Paredes saw Lieutenant Nelson Haase and the deputy lieutenant in charge of the conscripts. This was part of his story to justice:



"Lieutenant Jorge Smith started playing Russian roulette with a revolver he was carrying. He approached Victor Jara, who was standing, facing the wall, his hands on his back, so Smith turned the revolver nut, closed it, aimed it at the head of Victor Jara, in the parietal region Right, and fired. After receiving the shot, Víctor Jara fell to the ground, towards the side. He began to convulse on the ground, and Lieutenant Smith ordered me to finish him on the ground.... When this happened, the other detainees on the spot, including Litre Quiroga, were cornered, keeping silent. After the shots, other officers came to the dressing room to see if the uniformed men were all right. After that, Lieutenant Smith radioed an ambulance, and after a short time an orderly arrived, who handed us a brown plastic bag with mimicry, so we proceeded to put the corpse of Victor Jara in the bag and We climbed it to the table, then to be removed of the place, ignoring what they would do with the corpse ... ".


Smith and Nelson Haase, along with other officers, would have killed the other prisoners inside the dressing room, including Litre Quiroga. According to the autopsy protocol, the body of the singer-songwriter had approximately 44 bullet impacts on his body. The one from Quiroga indicates 38 projectile impacts.


José Paredes would later say that he invented everything. Because it is fanciful. Other officers would say that he stole, which contrasts with the resume of the employers of Paredes, the son of a Petty Officer. And many have reiterated that Paredes did not travel to Santiago with the contingent of Tejas Verdes and that he was never in Estadio Chile. Nothing fits. Not only because Paredes' account is consistent with the more than one hundred accumulated testimonies of how and who questioned, tortured and murdered the interior of Estadio Chile. No matter how fanciful it was Paredes, it is difficult to believe that his imagination recreated so much detail of what happened there. Because the most important thing is that there are at least three other testimonies that certify that José Paredes did travel to Santiago from Texas Greens and was in the National Stadium.


The corpse of Víctor Jara was launched in a street of Renca in the morning of Sunday 16 of September. The autopsy report, signed by Dr. Exequiel Jiménez Ferry, indicates that Victor Jara measured 1.67 and weighed 66 kilos. "In the right parietal region there are two bullet-entry holes. In the thoracic region, 16 bullet inlet holes and 12 outlet holes of different sizes. In the abdomen, there are 6 bullet inlet and 4 outlet holes. In the upper right extremity, there are 2 transfixing bullet wounds. At the lower extremities, there are 18 bullet inlet and 14 outlet ports. Cause of Death: Multiple Wounds to Bullet ".


To this day, the trial to identify the men who tortured and killed Víctor Jara remains open. In one of his covers reads: "It is established that in the last group that remained in Estadio Chile and in which Victor Jara was, there were also Manuel Cabieses, Laureano León (undersecretary of Social Prediction), Waldo Suárez, Darío Pérez , Adriana Vásquez and Danilo Bartulín (64).


The War Academy and the DINA

In September 1973, Manuel Contreras obtained from Pinochet the consent for his great obsession: the organization of a new intelligence structure to initiate the anti-subversive struggle. And it would be him who would command it. The DINA had been born and its first barracks would be the War Academy, an institution that soon would lead. In fact, the first commissions of service of the officers chosen by Contreras to integrate the high command of the secret organism, bear the label "destined to the Academy of War": Raul Iturriaga Neumann, Gustavo Abarzúa (65) and Rolf Wenderorth (66) , All of them students of the academy.


Until today it was not known that high officials of the War Academy participated in the teams of interrogators and torturers of the Estadio Chile. Perhaps that is a key to explain why the Army for more than 35 years refused to deliver the payroll of those who were destined to the Estadio Chile and its commandos, which were solicited in innumerable occasions by diverse judges. The same happened with the list of students who were in the War Academy in 1973.


This persistent obstruction of justice by the Army, which continues until today, acquires another meaning when it is revealed that the protected names were part of the military elite in 1973. Because from September of that year they were Which would maintain control of the State for the next 17 years. This generation, strategically placed in the War Academy, would have the greatest power ever deployed in the history of the military regime. Of its students, 28 became general and occupied the highest positions of the State and the institution. And 14 other officers led the secret services, either in the DINA or in the CNI (see payroll). There is, in part, the origin of the secret about who murdered Víctor Jara, Liter Quiroga and all those who died and were brutally tortured in Estadio Chile.



(1) Álvaro Puga was the first Deputy Secretary-General of Government until June 1976 and was a member of the Department of Psychological Operations of the DINA. Its action in those years appears in several of the documents of the DINA found by the author in the Judicial Archive of Argentina and that belonged to Enrique Arancibia Clavel. Part of his court order of September 21, 2007.
(2) Roberto Guillar was the official announcer of the coup on 11 September. He joined CONARA and in 1976, he was Undersecretary of War. In 1981, he headed the COAP (Advisory Council of the Presidency), which later became a Presidential Staff. In 1980, Pinochet was appointed Minister Secretary General of the Presidency, from where he carried out serious short circuits with the Catholic Church. From 1979 to 1982, he was director of the Telephone Company. Minister of Housing in 1982 and 1983. Intendant of Santiago in 1984, and Military attache in the United States until 1986. In 1985, he was promoted to major general and in 1987, assumed the Army Logistics Department. In 1988, he retired and was appointed by Pinochet consul general in Los Angeles.
(3) Enrique Morel Donoso rose to general in 1974 and ceased to be Pinochet's aide. In 1977, he was the military commander of the Zone in State of Emergency of Santiago. He was president of Soquimich and in 1979 he left his position to Julio Ponce Lerou, son-in-law of Pinochet. In 1981, he was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to all the diplomatic headquarters of Chile abroad. In 1982, he was president of Codelco and director of the State Bank (1982-1989). He was rector of the University of Chile for a few months. In 1986, he ascended to major general and in 1989 replaced Pedro Ewing in the Direction of Border and Limits of the Chancellery. His brother Alejandro was head of Zone in Angol for the 11 of September of 1973 and later effective of the CNI. He was also general manager of Chilectra and appointed mayor of Ñuñoa, as well as Chile's military attache in Honduras and Guatemala.
(4) At the time of leaving the Caravan of Death, as the second of Arellano, Arredondo had already been informed by Pinochet of his next destination: director of the School of Cavalry, a gift for who was known for his passion for horses . But he never left the DINA, performing secret functions abroad, mainly in Brazil (where he was a military attache); And the United States. In 1976, he would make an important trip with Manuel Contreras to Iran, next to the arms dealer Gerhard Mertins and a Brazilian general. He was tried for the crimes of Arellano's entourage, being the second in command and for the execution of 9 people in Quillota, who were made to appear as dead in a confrontation.
(5) General Arturo Vivero was the prime minister of Housing of the dictatorship.
(6) Son-in-law of Manuel Contreras.
(7) Declaration of the conscript R..A, dated January 14, 2009. He entered to perform military service on April 2, 1973, until April 1975, when he returned to civilian life.
(8) C.A.P. Declared on January 30, 2009. In their case and in others similar, it was decided to use only the initials of conscripts since they were somehow forced to fulfill certain missions.
(9) Declaration of April 20, 2007 of the frigate captain (R) Guillermo Segundo González Salvo.
(10) Marcelo Moren, in 1973, was major of the Arica Regiment of La Serena and joined the DINA in September, to which he belonged until 1977. He was the second head of Villa Grimaldi and head of the Brigade «Caupolicán» of the DINA. In 1976 he completed his mission in Brazil, where the main training center for the DINA staff was installed. From 1977 until 1981, as a colonel, he was assigned to the commander in chief of the Army. From '81 to '84 he was in the Garrison of Arica and from '84 to '85 in the General Staff of the Army. He went to retirement in 1985. He has been tried and convicted on multiple occasions for his responsibility in the detention and disappearance of people and is serving a prison sentence in a military prison.
(11) Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Souper Onfray assumed as commander of the Armored Regiment No. 2, on January 14, 1970. On January 3, 1972, he was appointed on a commission to serve as a guest of the government of that country for a Total of 17 days to witness military maneuvers. The 29 of June of 1973 passes to the General Command of the Military Garrison of Santiago. The 23 of October of 1973, passes to the Commando of Troops of the Army and 1 of January of 1974, ascends colonel. The 2 of December of 1974 was destined to the General Direction of Recruitment and Statistics of the Armed Forces. He left for retirement on May 2, 1978.
(12) Major (s) Sergio Rocha Aros was assigned to the Armored Regiment No. 1 "Granaderos" in 1974 and retired only on June 30, 1990.
(13) Colonel Mario Garay Martinez records the following Army Life Sheet: "November 24, 1972, for Armored Regiment No. 2; February 5, 1975, Lieutenant, assigned to Antofagasta Armored School; Between March 1 and June 30, 1976, to the Army Intelligence School, until 1978; In 1979, extrainstitutional commission commander in chief of the Army (which means sent to the CNI, until 1988, February 16, 1990, to the DINE, went to retreat on July 31, 1991.
(14) Captain René Eduardo López Rivera records the following Service Sheet in the Army: "In April 1973, to the Armored Regiment No. 2; On December 24, 1973, for the United States. To "carry out activities determined by the Army from 15 to 27 December 1973; 7 September 1978, commission of service to Seville; May 28, 1991, ceased to belong to the Army from March 29, 1981, on death. "
(15) On 8 November 2004, Raúl Aníbal Jofré González declared.
(16) Colonel (r) Antonio Roberto Bustamante Aguilar, records the following Sheet of Life: "January 1976, Army Intelligence Directorate, until 1979; 1980, service commissions to Panama and London; 1981, to South Africa; In 1982, Army Intelligence Corps; April 1983, commission of service to Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Panama, Honduras, Salvador, Korea and China. He went to retirement in April 2000.
(17) Colonel Antonio Roberto Bustamante Aguilar declared on November 9, 2004 (55 years) and said that he had been assigned to the CAJSI in Santiago until January 17, 1974, when he was assigned to the Batuco Ammunition and Explosives Depot ".
(18) Lieutenant Edwin Armando Dimter Bianchi, declared on 10 November 2004.
(19) On November 9, 2004, Lieutenant Colonel Mario José Garay Martínez (57 years) declared.
(20) The same mayor Enrique Cruz Laugier would be the one who would support hours later the eviction of the factory Yarur in Street Hípico Club.
(21) Ivan Herrera was one of the officers who executed the survivors of La Moneda in Peldehue, after they were removed from the Tacna Regiment. He confessed to the court 30 years later.
(22) Story in his book: And I still do not forget.
(23) On October 9, 2001, Mario Aguirre Sánchez, then leader of the UTE Federation of Students and later businessman, declared himself a prisoner in the National Stadium until November 1973, when it was closed. "I was released along with 12 other companions saving us from being taken to the Chacabuco Prison Camp."
(24) Juan Manuel Ferrari Ramírez stated on August 12, 2008.
(25) David Miguel González Toro, mayor of the Intendencia Army, declared on March 25, 2009 and said that he had been in Estadio Chile for "five to six days, until the transfer of detainees to the Stadium National".
(26) Manuel Isidoro Chaura Pavez, conscript of Tejas Verdes, declares on January 28, 2009, was assigned to the Second Combat Company, under the charge of Captain Luis Montero Valenzuela, Third Section, in charge of Lieutenant Rodrigo Rodríguez Fuschloger. He graduated in mid 1975.
(27) The Second Lieutenant of the Army, Rodrigo Rodríguez Fuschloger, died in Santiago, on March 15, 1974, in an accident.
(28) Osiel Núñez testified in the trial over the death of Victor Jara on several occasions. This account is part of his statement to the Rettig Commission, on 18 January 1991.
(29) Second Lieutenant Pedro Rodríguez Bustos, declared on April 4, 2002, and belonged to the Operations Group of the "Arica" ​​Regiment of La Serena.
(30) Fernando Polanco declared on January 29, 2008, when he was 66 years old
(31) Carlos Orellana, who was editor in exile of Araucaria Magazine and later a well-known publisher of the Editorial Planeta, declared by exhorto from France for the trial in Chile on September 11, 1979, was detained at Estadio Chile From the 12 to the 17 of September of 1973 and soon in the National Stadium until the 25 of October of 1973.
(32) Osiel Núñez spent a month in the National Stadium and from there he went to the Public Prison accused of being the organizer of armed resistance in the UTE. There he was detained for two years. He was dismissed and transferred to Tres Alamos where he remained for three months. He was registered with the house until he was authorized to leave the country. He returned to Chile in 1982.
(33) Attorney Boris Navia Pérez was head of the Department of Personnel and Appointments of the Technical University of the State, in that capacity he knew Professor Victor Jara well. He was also arrested at the UTE and taken prisoner to Estadio Chile. He declared on October 23, 2001.
(34) Commander Mario Manríquez, now deceased, served for 10 years as ENTEL Security Manager.
(35) Also the identity of 31 conscripts, 9 captains and 4 sergeants who were with him in those functions in Estadio Chile.
(36) Enrique Kirberg was finally taken to the Dawson Island Prisoners' Camp with the main leaders of the Unidad Popular. He died on April 22, 1992, of a hepatic coma, All his testimonies are part of an extensive interview made by the author.
(37) Ricardo Iturra was a professor and official of the UTE, he met Victor Jara in 1970 at the UTE, in the performance of his work, when Jara arrived as theater director and singer and he was director of the Permanent Education Program. Declared by exhorto from Paris the 3 of September of 1979 for the trial in Chile by the death of Víctor Jara.
(38) Cesar Fernández Carrasco declared by exhorto from Germany, he was professor of the UTE where he was the 11 of September.
(39) Julia Fuentes declared on July 19, 2003. In her statement she also said: "When the Chile Stadium was vacated, I was sent to Tres Álamos (another Camp of Prisoners), always as a kitchen teacher. I remember working for Conrado Pacheco Cárdenas and for a major surname Salgado. "
(40) Julio Guillermo Del Rio Navarrete, engineer, 60, declared on January 11, 2005. He was one of the prisoners who identified Miguel Krassnoff Martchenko as "El Príncipe." From the National Stadium he was released on October 2, 1973, along with the rest of his companions, except for six of them who were transferred to Investigations. Many of them change their lives forever. Her testimony has been corroborated by the author with two other people who were imprisoned with him.
(41) On April 24, 2008, says Guillermo Orrego Valdebenito (59 years).
(42) Declaration of March 31, 2006.
(43) On December 28, 2007, Lelia declared that she identified officer Edwin Dimter as "The Prince" in the photos. He related the fact that he allowed him to be released: "On one occasion, a group of the same soldiers who came from La Serena arrived and arrived at the stadium where the police had given us at the UTE, at least the sergeant, who Said that by responding to the list the next morning we should have indicated that we were being held by curfew. So they would let us go. And so it was. "
(44) Lieutenant Colonel Luis Bethke Wulf, in September 1973, was an Infantry Lieutenant in Regiment No. 2 "Maipo" of Valparaiso. During the Unidad Popular, his family suffered the expropriation of their lands. He retired in 1985. He declared on February 1, 2005.
(45) Brigadier Raúl Aníbal Jofré González recorded the following Record of Life: "In 1970, parachutist course at the Parachute School, and is a lieutenant on January 1, 1971. January 1972, to the Armored Regiment Nº 2. March 1, 1974, correspondence course "Basic Application of the Junior Officer" until May 31 '74; 7 September 1974, commission of service to Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria; 14 October '74, extraordinary course "Advanced Application of the junior officer of Armor", until October 31, '74 in the School of Armored (Antofagasta); 1 January '75, captain; 6 March '75, complements Supreme Decree, destined to the School of Armored (Santiago). It was withdrawn on 30 April 1998.
(46) The best and main profile of the official Edwin Dimter has been an investigation of the journalist Pascale Bonnefoy, published in 2006.
(47) On 8 November 2004, Raúl Aníbal Jofré González declared. When the prisoners of the Chile Stadium were transferred to the National Stadium, he would be the assistant of the commander of the new Field of Prisoners; Colonel Jorge Espinoza Ulloa.
(48) Colonel Nelson Edgardo Haase Mazzei in September 1973 had the rank of lieutenant and served as assistant to the deputy director of the School of Engineers Green Tejas, San Antonio, whose director was Colonel Manuel Contreras Sepulveda. In 1976 he was promoted to captain and transferred to the Directorate of National Intelligence (DINA). In 1990 he went to retirement with the rank of colonel. He declared on January 27, 2005, he was 58 years old.
(49) Lieutenant Edwin Armando Dimter Bianchi, declared on November 10, 2004.
(50) Lieutenant Edwin Dimter Bianchi records the following Army Leaflet: "On January 21, 1972, assigned as second lieutenant to the 2nd Armored Regiment in Santiago; On January 10, 1974, he is appointed lieutenant and passes to the Armored Regiment No. 1 "Grenadier" in Iquique, once a year returns to Santiago, to Armored Nº 2. On December 31, 1976 he is granted an absolute retirement.
(51) Hugo González González declared on June 17, 2008.
(52) Wolfgang Tirado declared by exhorto on March 11, 1980. He knew Víctor Jara well: "We worked in the same department in the UTE: he in the Music section and I in the Movies.
(53) The architect Miguel Lawner declared on August 31, 2004
(54) Colonel Juan Jara Quintana, who retired in 1994, declared on August 1, 2013.
(55) To the lieutenant Herrera, what he saw and did caused a strong commotion. He retired as a captain in 1983.
(56) Statement of Pedro Espinoza of January 10, 2008.
(57) Witness of that retirement was the then major of Carabineros Jorge Retamal Berrios.
(58) On 6 February 2007, Eliseo Cornejo (64 years old) stated.
(59) Powerful machine gun of 11 or more kilos, of 1,300 meters of scope, with a tape with 50 projectiles like charger.
(60) On March 2, 2006, declared César Leonel Fernández Carrasco, who was a professor at the UTE and a member of its Superior Council.
(61) Excerpted from Hugo Pavez's judicial declaration of October 15, 2002, who was arrested at CORFO and taken to Estadio Chile.
(62) On May 14, 2008, Erika Osorio, a UTE engineering student, was arrested and taken to Estadio Chile.
(63) Colonel Juan Quintana declared on August 1, 2013. He went to retreat in 1994.
(64) Danilo Bartulín, physician of Salvador Allende, was released when La Moneda burned, at 16:00 on September 11, 1973, along with doctors: Oscar Soto, Patricio Arroyo, Alejandro Cuevas, Hernán Ruiz, Victor Oñate and José Quiroga. He was then arrested again and taken to Estadio Chile and then to the National Stadium.
(65) Gustavo Abarzúa, artilleryman, was DINA's secretary of studies and from there he went to the Army Intelligence Directorate (DINE), then joined the Military in Uruguay and returned to DINE, where he was in 1984 as a colonel. He came to the generalate in 1987, being appointed head of the DINE. From there, in March 1988, he threatened a new September 11. In 1989 he also had the direction of the CNI. In March of 1990, in the restructuring by the transfer of the power, continued like director of the DINE, but in October went to retirement. It was linked to the scandal of La Cutufa, an illegal financier who was formed inside the Army and ended with homicides never clarified. He was tried for having ordered the assassination of leader Jecar Neghme in 1989, according to one of his perpetrators, but the Supreme Court acquitted him in 2009.
(66) Colonel Rolf Wenderoth, an engineer, was part of DINA's high command as deputy director of Interior Intelligence. In 1995, he was head of Villa Grimaldi. It was later destined to the CNI. In 1986, he participated in the creation of a special anti-subversive unit. In 1987, he was added Military in Federal Republic of Germany and on his return, in 1989, he went to retreat. He was sentenced to 5 years and 1 day for the death of Manuel Cotez Joo in 1975. He has been tried on several occasions for his participation in the detention and disappearance of persons and has invariably requested that the Amnesty Law be applied.

Source: Monica Gonzalez