Gonzalo Martínez Corbalá: "The September 17, 1973 in Peru stated that Neruda returned to Chile

By Mario Casasús, 26/11/2013


 

Mexico City - In an interview with Gonzalo Martinez Corbalá (1928 ) , Mexico's ambassador in Chile ( 1972-1973) , talks about the severance of diplomatic relations with Pinochet 's dictatorship . " Three times I asked President Luis Echeverria to break diplomatic relations with Pinochet, but the government of Mexico had to wait until we could rescue the 71 inmates at the embassy would have been a crime to abandon , initially had more than 500 political asylum in the embassy, the dictatorship did not authorize the safe conduct of the last 71 refugees. Rabasa Chancellor traveled to Chile in May 1974 to resolve the diplomatic crisis and to request the release of the Chancellor of the Popular Unity dictatorship once freed and allowed Clodomiro Almeyra out of the 71 refugees , President Luis Echeverría announced the breakdown in relations with the Pinochet regime November 26, 1974 . " The Mexican diplomat also revealed a hitherto unknown fact : "In Peru said, ' Wear the invitation of President Luis Echeverria for the poet Pablo Neruda as guest of honor of the government of Mexico .'" Since September 17, 1973 the dictatorship knew the exile plans Neruda.

MC - . Don Gonzalo , in his book " Moments of Decision" (1998 ) published the CLP family Allende Bussi, but Mexico 's Foreign Ministry did not find the safe conduct of Pablo Neruda and Matilde Urrutia , where documents would be ?
GM - . Could not be sure if I still have the safe conduct of Pablo Neruda and Matilde Urrutia, changed my home, but I offer in my file review , if I find the documents I'll give you a copy. I have the originals of the CLP family Allende Bussi, the published in my book, along with my own, it was improper because the dictatorship had to respect my diplomatic immunity, but I demanded the processing of the pass, otherwise they could arrest or murder on the streets , so did her requirements , or put me in calling for strict respect the Vienna Convention or transacting the pass to get around at any time and expedite the departure of the refugees from the embassy.

MC - On September 16, he returned to Mexico , he spoke with Luis Echeverria and with Foreign Minister Emilio Rabasa, asked him to go find Neruda . September 17 landed in Peru , reporters asked if Mexico break relations with Pinochet ...
GM - . I asked three times president Luis Echeverría to break diplomatic relations with Pinochet, but the government of Mexico had to wait until we could rescue the 71 asylum in the embassy would have been a crime to abandon , initially had more than 500 asylum seekers in the two houses of the embassy, the dictatorship did not authorize the safe conduct of the last 71 refugees. Rabasa Chancellor traveled to Chile in May 1974 to resolve the diplomatic crisis and to request the release of the Chancellor of the Unidad Popular (arrested in Dawson Island and moved to Tres Alamos ) , once the dictatorship freed and allowed Clodomiro Almeyra out of the 71 refugees , President Luis Echeverría announced the severance of relations with the Pinochet regime on 26 November 1974.

MC - . Santiago You definitely came out on Monday October 1, 1973 , who was left in charge of the embassy until November 1974 ?
GM - . 's Military attache in Chile Mexico , I did not trust Manuel Díaz Escobar, participated in violence against students June 10, 1971 in Mexico DF ( The Halconazo ), was anti-communist. Díaz Escobar had many friends in the military junta in Chile, sympathized with the Pinochet dictatorship , when I left Santiago Diaz Escobar stayed at the Embassy of Mexico with the risk that reversed what we achieved through diplomatic channels , I was concerned that it could pave Chilean military embassy to detain asylum seekers .

MC - . You " tricked " the chancellor of the dictatorship, made him believe that the military should respect the Caracas Convention , but Chile has not ratified the convention on political asylum , besides ignorant , are the army guys were naive to believe that Mexico did not break diplomatic relations ?
GM - . 's Clear that the military did not know that Chile has not ratified the Convention of Caracas, also did not know if Mexico would break diplomatic relations. On the return to Chile , I served the Estrada Doctrine ( nonintervention of Mexico in the political affairs of other countries), on the scale in Lima journalists wanted to know if we would break relations with Pinochet, I responded , "I will return to Chile , Mexico does not qualify or disqualify the military junta , is considered a government exception. Mexico , in the exercise of its sovereignty, decides what keeps governments or diplomatic relations. " A Pinochet did not suit him run out of trade with Mexico , dictatorship needed oil and some agricultural products .

MC . - Peruvian journalists asked if back by Pablo Neruda , when was public plan Luis Echeverría ?
. GM - That plan was defined from Mexico , all questions in Peru had to do with the fate of Neruda , " the poet back with you to Mexico ? " On wheel told reporters: " I wear the invitation of President Luis Echeverría for the poet Pablo Neruda as guest of honor of the government of Mexico . " Neruda had a huge sympathy in Mexico , you can see today in Mexico not interested in the controversy over the suicide of President Salvador Allende , however , read the interest in the investigation into the death of Neruda , people unworthy documentaries to see Neruda 's funeral and the repression of the military.

MC - You Teitelboim Volodya told the details of the invitation to Neruda : "There will have better medical care here" ( Neruda, 1984 ), two years later told Ximena Ortúzar . " We convinced him to accept the trip to Mexico , where he could receive all necessary medical care " ( Mexico and Pinochet , 1986). What background had on the health of Neruda?
GM - I knew you had prostate cancer and phlebitis ; . However, in the Santa Maria Clinic warned that was not dying , I found just as sick as the day I met him in Isla Negra, Neruda. I never understood his reasons to reschedule the trip to Mexico from 22 to 24 September , I visited him three days : 19 , 20 and 22 September in the clinic, Neruda was not catatonic or comatose , Saturday 22 , spoke normally. Currently investigating whether he was murdered by the injection of a drug , I'm awaiting news Neruda Case , sent my affidavit before a notary public , and I hope the verdict of justice.

MC - . Last year we organize a telephone link with Manuel Araya, how would you describe the encounter with Neruda 's driver ?
GM - . Was very special conversation with Manuel Araya , someone so remote in time and geography . We talked about the last days of Pablo Neruda.

MC - . Poet and diplomat Rafael Vargas Carrillo Gil Collection bring to Chile, 40 years later, what do you think about the possibility of recovering this project?
GM - . Would be a great act, we have to celebrate in Mexico , over the coup that shed so much blood, after the tragedy and having spent 40 years , gives me great joy to inaugurate the project resumes Collection Carrillo Gil with Neruda 's prologue , wait for that day with great excitement and affection, will be a fitting tribute to my friend Pablo Neruda.

MC - . At the opening of the Carrillo Gil Collection in Chile , would this slope will meet Cantalao probate ?
. GM - If you still have value words , if you can trust the word of a poet, if we still believe in humanity and social sensitivity , if this is so, you must meet the great project of Neruda : the Cantalao Foundation.

. MC - In September he was reunited in Mexico with : Inés Enríquez (the sister of Miguel Enríquez ) , Ximena Ortúzar ( correspondent historical process ) , Rogelio de la Fuente ( Socialist deputy in 1973 ), among other exiles . What does it mean to you generation of Chileans who decided to stay in Mexico ?
. GM - I try to go to all the events organized Chilean exile , always inviting me to go to their events , whether large or small, whether political or cultural , despite the years we are still seeing and talking by phone . With Inés Enríquez we remember his father , Edgardo Enríquez ( rector of the University of Concepción and Minister of Education UP) , on the other hand, told me that Ximena Ortúzar present his book " Mexico and Pinochet " , invited me to participate in presentation , and Rogelio de la Fuente is my neighbor in the Pedregal. All Chilean exile send me your publications : books, newspaper articles or academic papers . Deepen our friendship from exile in 1973.

MC - . Finally , Ximena Ortúzar published a letter from Lazaro Cardenas to Salvador Allende ( 07/10/1964 ) , the two met in Cuba . Was it a privilege to share the friendship of Cardenas and Allende?
GM - . 've Never found a way to do justice to what many would call luck and others would call destination. In my 85 years I have the privilege to live to tell the details of my friendship for 20 years, Lazaro Cardenas. My friendship with Salvador Allende, for 2 years, was sincere and intense, I admire him because he did not hesitate to pull the trigger to preserve the dignity of the office of President of Chile.

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