Interview with Victor Toledo / "Clarin", Chile

 

 

Puebla. - In an exclusive interview with Clarín.cl Victor Toledo (1958), poet, essayist, translator and university professor, speaks of reciprocity between Neruda and Mexico, points out some outstanding biographical research and analyzes that prevented the alleged murder of the poet-exile in September 1973: "It seems very possible that conspiracy, even re-reading the testimonies of my book of the last people who were with Neruda. To my prostate disease was controllable Neruda, a urology surgeon specialist literature for his thesis with me about the death of Chilean poet. I believe that, although difficult to prove, it has been covering up the murder. Neruda wanted and could keep fighting."

Author of: Didxazá Poems (1985), Gusilayú (1989), The Eagle in the veins. Neruda in Mexico - Mexico in Neruda (1994, 2nd. Ed. 2005), The House of the Cloud (1996), The Blue Fox (1996), the minimum infinity (1998), Portrait of family with some leaves (1999), Contemporary Mexican Poetry (2000), Three Russian poets: Pushkin, Pasternak, Brodsky (2000), Abla or Nothing (2002), Stone, Tristia and Other Poems (2005), Ronda fairy in Midsummer (2007), The Orphic return. Contributions to the analysis metric-musical (2008), The butterfly on the star. Russian poets Count (2008) and Poetry and Fairies (2012), among other books.
In July 2004, Victor Toledo received the Presidential Medal Centenary of Pablo Neruda, the book The Eagle in the veins (1994), however there are still issues to be investigated on Neruda's life in Mexico: "missing important details of your friendship with Octavio Paz, with Andrés Henestrosa and other poets and Mexican Zapotec research Alfonso Reyes and Neruda, more or less complete and Marco Antonio Campos did, what was the relationship with Carlos Pellicer, or with estridentistas?, with younger poets, painters and other artists with Mexican-José Revueltas, verbi grace-and Latin America and the world, for the biographies of Neruda not reflect the many dear friends and Neruda-bohemian who cultivated many great friends and odysseys carousing, the disappearing of his writings, without mention-even, some described it as Rulfo Skármeta Antonio. Only some of this endless sea of wonderful relationships in my book rescued. "

MC. - Why did you choose to develop your Canto general thesis of American literature?
VT. - Because I think one of the greatest American poems of all time. The most ambitious man in his attempt epopéyico infinite and even with their major faults, as our geography and history. It is the condition of a modern epic in itself a contradiction, our only American epic.

MC. - Synchronicity explain your intellectual relationship with Neruda and friendship they shared with Henestrosa Andres and Juan de la Cabada?
VT. - If one understands synchronicity as a meaningful coincidence, roughly, yes: the book was in the air and chose me to write. All Neruda friends living in Mexico, was or were I "accidentally" and I chose to confess or tell his adventures with Pablo Neruda unpublished. Others were my teachers in the Faculty of Arts of the UNAM: Hernan Lavin Cerda, very close to Neruda, who accompanied his last days and returned with the plane-Echeverria of Chilean exiles sent to rescue Neruda and settle an old well debt-revolutionary friendship, was my thesis advisor. All agreed, and wrote this book, it was my master's thesis, in three months, including the mythical poetic and sociological analysis of the poems Canto general murals.

MC. - Literary critic Jaime Concha, in an interview with Clarin, said: "Neruda discovers the Indian out of Chile, in the Mexican muralists," or do you share the idea refutas visual impact and mythological symbolism Mexican muralism Neruda?
VT. - Large Neruda friends were the Mexican mural painters rather than poets and writers left and right with those who constantly argued and fell out. Mexican muralism not only had the recent revolutionary worldview, also came from the influences of the forms of the great Renaissance frescoes and great pictorial tradition, symbolic and poetic Hispanic. So there was not only a mythological worldview-course American deep but was a wonderful achievement of opposites the poetic message and ideological-political-like through the narratological visual and poetic. The images and metaphors of Canto general are essential in mythical poetic structure.

MC. - Neruda published his "Testament" in Canto General. Do you find any influence of the generosity of the muralists to the point that after living in Mexico, Neruda began to inherit his real estate and book series?
VT. - Maybe there's something to that, but do not forget that Neruda became an institution, in a symbolic name, a sign in rotation, not only nationally but internationally and having left no direct heirs national possessions were disregarded, pedagogical , historical, by his greatness: necessary and foundational.

MC. - You published a letter from Neruda to Juan de la Cabada, asking him shells from the beaches of the Mexican Caribbean for its collection, how to understand the obsession Neruda by shells and subsequent donation to the University of Chile?
VT. - I understand partly subjective, partly symbolic, partly poetically: "Monsieur malacologist" wanted to capture all the sea in one ear, his ear was universal, but also snails along the door, they say, are unlucky . His great proximity to the sea-trips, then-liners, Isla Negra home by the ocean, a poet turned everything Marine who had mania and greedy collector who wanted to own everything he touched, tasted, seen , heard and smelled. It was the hand of a very wide tsunami collector, compulsive possessive, son of Poseidon, gargantuan eater beings and things. Your leviatánica voracity was a kind of substitute for religious ritual existential vacuum be fighting still secretly pursued since the Residence on Earth. He was a contradictory attempt to levitate, as his writing, stopping time and being. Messianic socialist affiliation, but never confessed Christian, yes believer of reincarnation, authentic poet, his universe was the sacred world of paganism.

But his daughter Malva Marina died in infancy, and mauve symbolically means "heartache", ie "heartache ocean" or "sea heart sorrow". The sea: the unconscious, the unfathomable romantic soul, sublime and mysterious, the simple and complex: as poetry-ear, the snail-Neruda. The donation to the university about his understanding of the scientific value of this valuable and unique collection of ocean depth collector.

MC. - It was not all honey spilled in Mexico, what is your interpretation of the breakdown of Neruda and contemporaries?
VT. - Poetics and different political views, dueling egos. National-historical contexts with distinctions. The Contemporaries more careful and respectful of the way, Neruda son of the vanguard of new departures, poetic tradition other. The Contemporaries more thoughtful and philosophically trained, generally more cosmopolitan critics as Jorge Cuesta-Nationalism-plus "apolitical" except for Carlos Pellicer, for example. The official "counter" of the Mexican Revolution "stabilized", "broken": The Contemporaries. More visceral, more enthusiastic man of his time change: Neruda oriented more to the left easy demagogic ideology, but also more passionate about humanity, its history and its future, from a social class, in general, more humble and working. He fought to come to power through a popular response, The Contemporaries were already in power had just arrived not long ago, and came mostly from the middle class or educated petty bourgeoisie.

MC. - Literary critic Enrico Mario Santi, in an interview with Clarin, said, "Octavio Paz encouraged and recommended to the readership of Barcelona to make the edition of the Complete Works of Neruda". In your book: The eagle in the veins (1994), Peace mention an interview granted to the Russian press on Neruda. What tells you the desire of posthumous reconciliation Octavio Paz in memory of his friend Pablo Neruda?
VT. - I was very surprised when Octavio Paz, the Nobel Prize for Literature, in the interview for publication Literaturnaya Gazieta-Moscow's most important cultural and socialism, instead of talking about him and his work-was a completely unknown to the Russian culture and language, so no more Latin American poet Neruda translated into this language Slavic-speaking come loose most of that space, without pretense or via question-with enthusiasm and admiration for "his great friend Paul Neruda, the only poet who knew Dionysian still alive, the few that remain of this species. " Peace, "son of contemporaries" and the son and grandson of Mexican revolutionaries considered himself a poet cults "Apollonian". There was no picture of Octavio Paz, and was published in all media was that I provided, I studied then a PhD in Russian literature at Moscow-cutting the cover of one of my books. Paz and Neruda was dearly loved and admired. At the end of the days of Neruda, after many years of estrangement, they reconciled, but ideological historical political disputes, its distinct anti-critique criticism or generational affiliation, national and international levels, unfortunately distanced in time.

MC. - What signs are needed for a new chapter in the biography of Neruda in Mexico?,? Investigarías friendship with Chilean poet Juan Jose Arreola and Efraín Huerta?
VT. - I think that corresponds to substantial research and other pens: not only the relationship with Juan Jose Arreola and Efraín Huerta, still missing important details about his friendship with Octavio Paz, with Andrés Henestrosa and other poets and Mexican Zapotec research Alfonso Reyes and Neruda, more or less complete and Marco Antonio Campos did, what was the relationship with Carlos Pellicer, or with estridentistas?, with younger poets, painters and other artists with Mexican-José Revueltas, verbi grace- and Latin America and the world, for the biographies of Neruda not reflect the many dear friends and Neruda-bohemian who cultivated many great friends and partying odysseys, the disappears from his writings, without even mention-something of Rulfo and Antonio described it Skármeta. Arreola told me that Neruda always said he envied her hair, which was amazing: black, curly, long and generous. Only some of this endless sea of wonderful relationships in my book rescued.

MC. - Did you study the fleeting Neruda returns to Mexico in 1961 and 1966?
VT. - No, I'm lying, my book is a provocation for this saga so deep, bright and fun.

MC. - Neruda had plans to return to Mexico on September 24, 1973, can you imagine what role he had played the poet during his exile in Mexico in opposition to dictatorship?
VT. - If the resistance leader had been one of the main leaders, remember its convening power, its deep political passion, and his experiences as a senator and presidential candidate, his path social activist, and the prestige of Nobel prize, his great international relations: the great knowledge and appreciation he had for the Soviet Union, a Mexico, more nationalistic, strong and independent.

MC. - Finally, you wrote on your Facebook page: "To my knowledge the prostate disease was controllable Neruda" (15/01/2012). Why not discard the possibility of the alleged murder of Chilean Nobel?
VT. - It seems very possible that conspiracy, even re-reading the testimonies of my book of the last people who were with Neruda. To my prostate disease was controllable Neruda, a urology surgeon specialist literature for his thesis with me about the death of Chilean poet. I believe that, although difficult to prove, it has been covering up the murder. Neruda was willing and able to continue fighting.

Hugo Chavez, Cristina Kirchner, Luis Ignacio Lula, Fidel Castro, currently Latin America's left, is ill with cancer and strangely coincides almost simultaneously. Induce the disease through chemicals, is now very common among spies, the injections were before inducing cardiac arrest or respiratory death or deterioration of the body, as in the case of Neruda. This new procedure has never been so poisoned killed several Egyptian pharaohs and Roman emperors.

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