Puebla. - In an interview with Clarín.cl Orlando Marín Vázquez (1953), a surgeon, urologist, discusses the clinical record of Neruda: "It is outrageous the diagnosis of cancer cachexia, it goes along with what was happening in reality, the patient was admitted to the clinic with symptoms of urinary tract infection, as evidenced by the general analysis of urine that is: 1,000,000 active colonies Klepsiella negative germs. The inconvenience suffered the poet were secondary to urinary tract infection, including fever should suffer, if you ever started talking inconsistencies or delirious, no doubt had a fever. It is rare for two days in a patient dying from an infection, unless very severe septicemia, Neruda was hospitalized but doctors should be aware of the sepsis ".
General practitioner from the Autonomous University of Puebla (UAP), with postgraduate urological surgeon for La Raza National Medical Center (Mexico), Orlando Marín Vázquez attended the Masters in research and medical sciences (UAP) and made two U.S. academic stays : in Urologic Oncology (International Medical Center Detroit, Michigan) and urology (Mercy Hospital in San Antonio, Texas). He is currently Chief of Urology, National Medical Center Manuel Avila Camacho (Puebla) and is preparing a thesis on the poetry of Neruda's death.
The poet Victor Toledo directed the thesis of Dr. Orlando Vazquez: "I asked him if he could help me work on my thesis project, I had no idea that Dr. Victor Toledo had written a book on Neruda in Mexico, so I suggested an amalgam between prostate cancer and the poetry of Neruda, to see what they could salvage, and what is expressed from synchronicity. My thesis project can have multiple outputs, one is the purely literary aspect, another aspect would dedicate my thesis to doctors, because if Neruda's poetry read in context, could respond differently when they say cancer patients' I'm dying 'and oncologists and urologists colleagues feel more empathy with their patients. "
MC. - Doctor, plus specialty in urology, why he decided to study American literature? OV. - The truth is that I have always been inclined to literature, I was a fan of Jaime Sabines, and for some reason Neruda is one of my favorite poets, while found in the flea market a small statue of a Neruda, had written something in reference to his poems: "only hear the sound of the leaves and poetry was calling him." My love of literature is very important in my life, I wrote a book about poetry, I wanted to finish my test without the slightest approach someone to direct my thesis, I dared to show it in college, but found a book light without greater significance. This gave rise to the concern of the race enroll in American literature and improve my interpretations of poetry.
MC. - Neruda lived pivotal moments of the twentieth century, his biography traveling took him to the East, almost met across America, Europe and the Soviet Union, why chose to investigate Neruda recent years for his thesis? OV. - When I thought I spotted a poet Neruda universal, virtually addressed the broad aspects of humanity, spoke of human rights, became interested in ethnicity, fought for the Republic in Spain, rescued the fallen of the Civil War Spanish, nested left causes. When we find an icon that speaks of a protest and is manifested in a wonderful way as Neruda, impacts and forces us to read it to know more. Approaching a poet like Neruda's not easy, it's scary to approach a person who truly is a titan, one feels little to review his complete works. But Miguel de Unamuno said, "there is poetry and for all, for whom the shot."
MC. - Doctor, instead of approaching life Neruda, poetry study on the eve of his death, how to address the posthumous books Neruda? OV. - Try to relate the suffering of his last poem Neruda melancholy, because doctors forget the human being and see the sick as alien, patients are the opposite. The medical profession tends to dehumanization, a few months ago during a urology conference took an advance on my thesis and all colleagues were stunned with the news, felt that was the antithesis of what we do, nobody notices reality patient, we always talk about the medical findings and changes in surgical methods, but never of patients. Speaking of Neruda and his illness allows me to teach my fellow specialty that dehumanization is a big problem to practice medicine.
MC. - The biographer and friend of Neruda, Volodia Teitelboim Matilde Urrutia wrote that he tried to hide the diagnosis of cancer by Chilean Nobel coincides Jorge Edwards's account in "Goodbye, poet". Neruda? Was not aware of his cancer? OV. - Neruda was a very intelligent person, and you can not lie in an intelligent diagnosis, much less in the hospitals in Europe like the Cochin Hospital in France, where as a rule any diagnosis should be known by the patient. When he returns to Chile is definitive diagnosis: prostate cancer. It is impossible to think that the poet was not aware of the problem and attacked it will eventually cause death.
MC. - Identifies a break in the poetry of Neruda after cancer diagnosis? OV. - The eyes that look poets are not the same of us, I am a urologist and see patients with prostate cancer, now I can not imagine Neruda, his suffering and how to address the problem, not is easy to assimilate the idea that cancer and suffer the bells to take flight. What happens in poetry, if we review the books: The yellow heart, Geography fruitless, Elegy and 2000, it shows a degree of sadness and loneliness, even fired. The yellow heart is the fundamental part of life, but with that color tends to decline in life expectancy in the poem: But I move about his disease, refers to a "melancholy prostate and whims of my urethra" .
MC. - Missing pieces of the puzzle in the clinical record of Neruda, but in his professional opinion, what has life expectancy of a person diagnosed with prostate cancer? OV. - Viewing photographs of Neruda, in July 1973 - by analyzing lab tests that I have on hand and radiotherapy tab mentioned a cycle of 56 sessions, it should be noted that only a part of the body irradiated Neruda, ie the site of the prostate and pelvis on the right side, one might think that a cancer is controlled, it is not invasive disease throughout the body, otherwise it would have been irradiated in the column and some other bones poet. At least, with the pieces of the puzzle that we conclude that a cancer is controllable with Stage D that is invasive, but not all the bones of the economy, talking about a survival of 5 or 6 years without major problems even without treatment, studies that recommend Americans watching and waiting, several patients did well, others not, participated in the study patients with advanced stage, in which survival was 5-6 years without receive any radiation treatment or chemotherapy, without going under the knife.
MC. - The Neruda's death certificate states that the cause of death was "cancer cachexia", what do you think? OV. - In particular I think it is outrageous the diagnosis of cancer cachexia, it goes along with what was happening in reality, the patient was admitted to the clinic with symptoms of urinary tract infection, as shown by the analysis Urine general has: 1,000,000 active colonies of germs Klepsiella negative, surely all inconvenience suffered the poet were secondary to urinary tract infection, including fever should suffer, if you ever started talking inconsistencies or delirious, no doubt I had fever. It is rare for two days in a patient dying from an infection, unless very severe septicemia, but Neruda was hospitalized at the Clinic Santa Maria from September 19, doctors must realize sepsis diagnosis cachexia does not match what happened.
MC. - Rule out the theory of the alleged murder of Neruda? OV. - It's hard to take sides, not having all the pieces of the puzzle is difficult to diagnose in veracity, now we talk about evidence-based medicine. I would stick with the question of knowing exactly what Neruda died, but what I do know is that there is no clinical rationale for establishing the diagnosis of cachexia, we must think about what happened those days: the cancer was controlled, associated with an infection that probably took him to the hospital and joint pain in the hip, but it is difficult to know the exact cause of death.
MC. - How do I know?, Does the exhumation would the results? OV. - It all starts with the simplest, in this case would go to the hospital tab, the medical record is the turning point of the case, if we did we would know the patient's progress and records of doctors and nurses. Perform bones exhumed to reveal secrets of the poet we will be a real ordeal and not very well.
MC. - What would the anthropological autopsy to clarify the alleged murder of Neruda? OV. - The socio-anthropological analysis would set the stage prostate cancer who suffered Neruda. Identify possible treatments granted. Relate the stage of cancer treatment to identify possible errors or malpractice. Undertake an analysis of the context of the time, before and after the 1973 coup. The report would seek a conclusion whether prostate cancer was a risk factor for myocardial infarction suffer. And so to ratify or rectify prostate cancer as a cause of death of Pablo Neruda, without the exclusion of other diagnoses, with the possibility of poisoning or allergic reactions to dipyrone.
MC. - Sergio Draper According to the doctor, the patient ordered Dipyrone apply Neruda, and the driver Bury Manuel Araya insists that an injection in the stomach caused the death of the poet. Does Dipyrone applied in the stomach is a common treatment to relieve pain in patients with prostate cancer? OV. - The important thing is to know why he ordered the injection of dipyrone, if indicated by pain or fever, then you should answer: why indicated in the abdominal area, the drug dipyrone is not indicated at the abdomen, the procedure is intramuscular, intravenous or oral. The abdomen is an area not recommended because there is a lot of fat, if you inject Dipyrone dissemination is faster and the risk of allergic shock is much faster, there is a way that is supported by the international medical literature, any doctor will arise the question: why was injected into the stomach Dipyrone?, the use of dipyrone has been banned in the U.S. by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration).
MC. - Include in his university thesis results can exhume Neruda? OV.-As I see Neruda's life since childhood, has always been influenced by the symbolism and the symbolism came to the day of his death, every work has a conclusion and according to my advisor, Dr. Victor Toledo-if it is prudent will include a chapter on the alleged murder of Neruda, I have so many tables, I'm just a urological surgeon, Chief of Urology at St. Joseph Hospital in Puebla, depend on the guidance of my supervisor.
MC. - Dr. Victor Toledo wrote the book "The eagle in the veins. Neruda in Mexico, Mexico in Neruda "(1994). Did you deliberately sought to supervise your thesis? OV. - It's circumstantial, Neruda always caught my attention, but the day I asked Dr. Victor Toledo to direct my thesis, he was giving a lecture on Octavio Paz. Toledo I went to the doctor and told him that I would write about Neruda and asked if he could help me work on my thesis project, then gave me his book and saw Neruda knew more than I imagined, had no idea Dr. Victor Toledo who had written a book on Neruda in Mexico, I remember being asked, "what you do for a living?" then suggested I make an amalgam between prostate cancer and the poetry of Neruda, to see what could rescue, and what is expressed from synchronicity, poetry is the Speaker of the synchronicity of what happened to Neruda.
MC. - Finally, would publish a book of his thesis research university? OV. - My thesis project can have multiple outputs, one is purely literary aspect, could also be aimed at people who work on the imagination and symbolism. Another aspect would dedicate my thesis to doctors, because if Neruda's poetry read in context, could respond differently when cancer patients say, "I'm dying" and oncologists and urologists colleagues feel more empathy with their patients.